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Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

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Written By: 
Anshul Thakur
Simulations and prototyping have been a very important part of the electronics industry since a very long time now. Before heading in for the actual fabrication of a dedicated hardware, everyone would want to be sure that what they are making will work the way they want it to. Over all these years while electronics companies offered dedicated hardware in their products, it was not possible for the end user to reconfigure them to his own needs. This need led to the growth of a new market segment of customer configurable Field Programmable integrated circuits called Field Programmable Gate Arrays or FPGAs.
 
HistoryFPGA - Field Programmable Logic Array
The FPGA share a common history with most Programmable Logic Devices. The first of this kind of devices was the Programmable Read Only Memory. Further driven by need of specifically implementing logic circuits, Philips invented the Field-Programmable Logic Array (FPLA) in the 1970s. This consisted of two planes, a programmable wired AND-plane and the other as wired OR. It could implement functions in the Sum of Products form.
 
To overcome difficulties of cost and speed, Programmable Array Logics were developed which had only one programmable ‘AND’ plane fed into fixed OR gates. PALs and PLAs along with other variants are grouped as Simple Programmable Logic Devices (SPLDs). In order to cater to growing technological demands, SPLDs were integrated onto a single chip and interconnects were provided to programmably connect the SPLD blocks. These were called Complex PLDs and were first pioneered by Altera, the first in the family being Classic EPLDs and then, MAX series.
 
Then another class of Electronic devices, Mask-Programmable Gate Arrays consisting of transistor arrays which could be connected using custom wires motivated the design of the FPGAs. Transistors gave way to Logic Blocks and the customization could now be performed by the user on the field and not in the manufacturing lab. The credit to develop the first commercially viable FPGA goes to Xilinx co-founders Ross Freeman and Bernard Vonderschmitt. The XC2064 was invented in 1985 consisting of 64 Configurable Logic Blocks with 3 Look Up Tables. It was in late 1980s when Steve Casselman’s proposed experiment to implement a computer with 6,00,000 reprogrammable gates found sponsors in US Naval Surface Warfare department and later a patent in 1992.
 
By the end of 1990, a lot of competition sprung up in manufacturing FPGAs when Xilinx’s market share started to decline. Players like Actel, Altera, Lattice, QuickLogic, Cypress, Lucent and SiliconBlue started entering this field and carving their niche in the world FPGA Market along with Xilinx, as FPGA started gaining acceptance in applications like Digital Signal Processing and Telecommunications. In 1997, Adrian Thompson succeeded in merging a genetic algorithm technology with FPGA and started a new age of Evolvable hardware.
 
Programming Technologies
FPGA’s can be considered to be building bricks which allow desired customization of the hardware. These are a special form of PLDs with higher densities and with increased capability of implementing functionality in a shorter time span using CAD. The FPGA’s are available in various flavours based on the programming technology used. These may be programmed using:
1.      Antifuse Technology, which can be programmed only once. Devices manufactured by QuickLogic are examples of this type. Configuration is done by burning a set of fuses. These act as replacements for Application Specific ICs (ASIC) and used in places where protection of intellectual property is top priority.
2.      Flash Technology based Programming, like devices from Actel. The FPGA may be reprogrammed several thousand times, taking a few minutes in the field itself for reprogramming and has non-volatile memory.
3.      SRAM Technology based FPGAs, the currently dominating technology offering unlimited reprogramming and very fast reconfiguration and even partial reconfiguration during operation itself with little additional circuitry. Most companies like Altera, Actel, Atmel and Xilinx manufacture such devices.
 

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