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Stepper Motors or Step Motors

Written By: 

Nikhil Agnihotri
What is a stepper motor?
A Stepper Motor or a step motor is a brushless, synchronous motor which divides a full rotation into a number of steps. Unlike a brushless DC motor which rotates continuously when a fixed DC voltage is applied to it, a step motor rotates in discrete step angles. The Stepper Motors therefore are manufactured with steps per revolution of 12, 24, 72, 144, 180, and 200, resulting in stepping angles of 30, 15, 5, 2.5, 2, and 1.8 degrees per step. The stepper motor can be controlled with or without feedback.

Stepper or Step MotorsStepper or Step Motors

How a stepper motor works?
Stepper motors work on the principle of electromagnetism. There is a soft iron or magnetic rotor shaft surrounded by the electromagnetic stators. The rotor and stator have poles which may be teethed or not depending upon the type of stepper. When the stators are energized the rotor moves to align itself along with the stator (in case of a permanent magnet type stepper) or moves to have a minimum gap with the stator (in case of a variable reluctance stepper). This way the stators are energized in a sequence to rotate the stepper motor. Get more information about working of stepper motors through interesting images at the stepper motor Insight.
How Stepper Motor works
Types of Stepper Motor
By construction the step motors come into three broad classes:
1.      Permanent Magnet Stepper
2.      Variable Reluctance Stepper
3.      Hybrid Step Motor
These three types have been explained in detail in the following sections.


very nice information



really gr8 one!!!


complicated a litte bit. 

well explained.. nice!

 informative knowledge

stepper motor is a lead part of engineering..

thanks for information about it.

i got a problem with my stepper...its not rotating but able to see some movement inside!can any 1 help meout?


nice piece of info........


Really goood!! Worth reading!!yes

very nice tutorial .very few one who give such a information.

                                                                                               v thanks

thanx for giving such a brief discruption..

super explanation. thank u so much......

Unipolar motors have single winding per phase

Bipolar has two windings per phase

Nice !!! Really its a Gorgeous Answer !!!!

large information in small space


its too good answer 



i saw first time this type of great explaination.


very good information for freshers


nice explanation

Its very useful for beginners as well as experts each and every information of programing as well as interfacing techniques u can learn without any doubts ..........hats of EG its one of my favorite site for controller 

easily understandable one

help me plz!!

what binary should be applied across the leads to stop stepper motor in wave drive stepping mode???

very good infor, it help me alot


Very nice information.