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Atmega 32u4 Based Generic USB Keyboard - Block diagram

The Mouse and keyboard are most common computer peripherals. While mouse is a pointing device and helps in tapping the GUI elements of the screen, the keyboard has greater role to play with handling data input as well as has ability to navigate through GUI elements of a screen. Nowadays the keyboards interface with the computers through USB cable and use USB protocol to send data inputs to the computers.

The wireless type keyboards generally use Bluetooth to send data inputs to the computers. In fact, wireless keyboards also use an external pluggable device which ultimately connects through the PC by USB Port. This project is to demonstrate the basic functioning and working of a generic USB keyboard. The 8-bit USB AVR - Atmega 32u4 is used as the device controller chip in the project. 

Atmega 32u4 Based Generic USB Mouse - Block diagram

A Mouse is a common computer peripheral apart from the keyboard. Even the touchpad is not able to dent the popularity of mouse. Nowadays the keyboards, as well as mouse connect through the computers via USB cable or the fancier one connect to the PCs wirelessly through Bluetooth. This project is an attempt to demonstrate the functioning of a generic USB mouse. The 8-bit USB AVR - Atmega 32u4 is used as the USB device controller in the project. In order to avoid complexity, the project uses AVR based Lightweight USB Framework (LUFA) as the firmware.

frequency and duty cycle using ArduinoArduino has several applications. We may find its application in many different fields and areas. It can be used in measurement field also to measure electrical quantities (like voltage, current, power etc) or physical quantities (like temperature, moisture, light intensity, humidity etc) or electronic component values etc. The given article demonstrates how to measure frequency and duty cycle of pulses using arduino.

Frequency measurement is required in so many different applications. In communication field frequency measurement is at most essential. Duty cycle is also an important parameter to measure because it gives % of pulse width – means ON time of the pulseIn DC motor speed control and servo motor angle control, it is required to measure the width of the pulseAlso, the pulse width is measured to check the symmetry of pulse in some of the application like a digital signal receiver, repeaters etc.