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Intruder Alarm

Summary

By: 
Anjali Sethiya

Various types of alarms are available in market to protect the entry of unauthorized person in restricted area but they require precise alignment. The circuit described here is very sensitive and it can detect the moving person at a distance of few meters and we do not require much alignment. Circuit will give you loud alarm enough to detect the presence of person in restricted area. It can be used as fence alarm to protect your garden from animals.You can also use it at your doors to indicate that some stranger is present on door. 

Intruder Alarm

Description

The circuit comprises of Operational amplifier. ?A741 is used as a sensitive voltage comparator, NE555  wired in mono-stable mode. In mono-stable mode IC is once trigged, it will hold the output for a specific interval of time as defined by the timing component before returning to its original state and we are utilizing this property in our circuit. LDR, Preset VR1 which provides reference voltage to the non-inverting terminal pin 3 and LDR and R1 and R2 is connected to inverting pin 2 of IC1 and few more components.

Working of circuit

In this circuit we have made a two potential divider circuit one at inverting terminal (pin2) and another at non inverting terminal (pin 3) of IC1. We have used resistor R1 and R2 to provide half supply voltage at inverting terminal. LDR and variable resistor VR1 is used to provide variable voltage input at non inverting terminal pin 3.

Initially when nobody is present in front of sensor (LDR), output pin 6 of IC1 is at high voltage level which makes the base of transistor T1 also high and its emitter is also high that's why at this time transistor T1 will not conduct. Because if this IC2 will not oscillate and alarm will remain off.Now as person enters its shadow will fall on LDR because of change in light intensity on LDR voltage at non inverting input pin 3 will become low. The output pin 6 of IC1 become low causing the transistor T1 to conduct. This will trigger the IC2 and the alarm or buzzer connected to it will start sounding. It is recommended that keep LDR inside black tube or pipe to increase the sensitivity of LDR. You can also increase the sensitivity by the variable resistor VR1.

Circuit Diagram

Components

Resistor Image
Resistor

Resistor is a passive component used to control current in a circuit. Its resistance is given by the ratio of voltage applied across its terminals to the current passing through it. Thus a particular value of resistor, for fixed voltage, limits the current through it. They are omnipresent in electronic circuits.

...
Capacitor image
Capacitor

 

 

Capacitor is a passive component used to store charge. The charge (q) stored in a capacitor is the product of its capacitance (C) value and the voltage (V) applied to it. Capacitors offer infinite reactance to zero frequency so they are used for blocking DC components or bypassing the AC signals. The capacitor undergoes through a recursive cycl...

LDR | Light Dependent Resistor
LDR

An LDR (Light dependent resistor), as its name suggests, offers resistance in response to the ambient light. The resistance decreases as the intensity of incident light increases, and vice versa. In the absence of light, LDR exhibits a resistance of the order of mega-ohms which decreases to few hundred ohms in the presence of light. It can act as a sensor, since a varying voltage drop can be obtained...

Presets | Variable Resistors
Preset
 
A preset is a three legged electronic component which can be made to offer varying resistance in a circuit. The resistance is varied by adjusting the rotary control over it. The adjustment can be done by using a small screw driver or...
Speaker Image
Speaker
A loudspeaker (or "speaker") is a transducer that converts electrical energy into acoustical energy. When an electric signal is applied to the input pin of speaker, it generates sound waves. The other pin is connected to ground. A speaker is commonly used to produce sound in response to a sensor output. For example, in an...
555 Timer | IC 555 | NE555
555 Timer IC

555 is a very commonly used IC for generating accurate timing pulses. It is an 8pin timer IC and has mainly two modes of operation: monostable and astable. In monostable mode time delay of the pulses can be precisely controlled by an external resistor and a capacitor whereas in astable mode the frequency & duty cycle are controlled by two external resistors and a...

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