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How to interface RFID with 8051 microcontroller (AT89C51)

Summary

Developed By: 
Himanshu Choudhary

An RFID (Radio-frequency identification and detection) reader is a device which is used to communicate with RFID tags by receiving and transmitting signals. These signals use radio waves for wireless communication.RFID tag is applied to products, individuals or animals to identify and track them. The identification is done through a unique serial number. This topic covers the interfacing of a passive RFID system with AT89C51. The code of RFID tag is also displayed on an LCD interface. The free source code for the program is avaiable in C.

 

How to interface RFID with 8051 microcontroller (AT89C51)

Description


 

An RFID (Radio-frequency identification and detection) reader is a device which is used to communicate with RFID tags by receiving and transmitting signals. Interface RFID with 8051 These signals use radio waves for wireless communication. RFID tag is applied to products, individuals or animals to identify and track them. The identification is done through a unique serial number. This topic covers the interfacing of a passive RFID system with AT89C51. The code of RFID tag is also displayed on an LCD interface. The free source code for the program is available in C. An RFID module basically consists of two parts, namely, a tag and a reader. A typical RFID system consists of an antenna, a transceiver and a transponder (RF tag). The radio frequency is read by the transceiver and the information is transferred to a device for further processing. The information (the unique serial number) to be transmitted is stored in the RF tag or transponder. The transponder contains a chip and an antenna mounted on a substrate. The chip transmits the relevant information through antenna. 

 

An RFID module basically consists of two parts, namely, a tag and a reader. A typical RFID system consists of an antenna, a transceiver and a transponder (RF tag). The radio frequency is read by the transceiver and the information is transferred to a device for further processing. The information (the unique serial number) to be transmitted is stored in the RF tag or transponder.

The transponder contains a chip and an antenna mounted on a substrate. The chip transmits the relevant information through antenna. The antenna also receives the electromagnetic waves sent by the RFID reader.

Different RFID tags work on different frequencies. Here low frequency, 125 kHz, RFID tags have been used. These tags work within a range of 10 cm. When an RFID tag comes in this range, the reader detects it and sends a unique code of the tag serially. This serial code, consisting of 12 bytes, is received by the microcontroller.

 

 

A serial level converter is required for AT89C51 to receive these serial signals. IC MAX232 has been used for this purpose to interface the RFID reader with microcontroller. The circuit connections are as follows:

 

 

Receiver1 (R1) of MAX232 has been used for the serial communication. The receiver pin of RFID reader is connected to R1IN (pin13) of MAX232. R1OUT (pin 12) of MAX232 is connected to RxD (P3.0) of microcontroller.
 
RFID Reader
MAX232
AT89C51
Rx
R1 IN
R1 OUT
Rx


Pins 1-3 of port P1 (P1.0, P1.1 & P1.2 respectively) of AT89C51 are connected to the control pins 4-6 LCD. The unique identification code of RFID tag is displayed on the LCD.

In the program, Timer1 is configured for serial communication. The baud rate is set to 9600bps for data transmission. The LCD is initialized to display the code. When a card/tag comes in the proximity of RFID reader, the microcontroller reads the code and sends it to the LCD module.

 

Circuit Diagram


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Components

MAX232 | IC MAX232
MAX232
 
The MAX232 IC is used to convert the TTL/CMOS logic levels to RS232 logic levels during serial communication of microcontrollers with PC. The controller operates at TTL logic level (0-5V) whereas the serial communication in PC works...
AT89C51 Microcontroller, Atmel 89C51 Controller Image
AT89C51 Microcontroller

AT89C51 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel's 8051 family. ATMEL 89C51 has 4KB of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (...

16 x 2 LCD | 16x2 Character LCD Module
LCD

 

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and find a wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits. These modules are preferred over seven segments...

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