Features of microcontrollers
1. Architectural features:
Most microcontrollers built today are based on the CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) platform. A typical CISC microcontroller has over 80 instructions and it is quite common for the instructions to all behave quite differently.
The main advantage of CISC architecture is that the instructions are macro-like, allowing the programmer to use one instruction in place of many simpler instructions.
2. Advanced Memory features:
a. Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM):
Many microcontrollers use the economic EEPROM for smaller amount of memory that have frequently changeable data. This type of memory is relatively slow, and the number of erase/write cycles allowed in its lifetime is limited.
b. FLASH (EPROM):
Flash provides microcontrollers with a better solution than EEPROM for requirements of large amounts in non-volatile program memory. EPROM is faster and permits more erase/write cycles than EEPROM.
3. Power Management features
A majority of microcontrollers usually support an operation of 3 - 5.5 V. As consumer goods become trendier, compact and lighter, the focus is on microcontrollers to ensure that products with less power usage are efficiently built and then used by end-users.
Microcontrollers are used in products that are controlled automatically.
The various products that make use of microcontrollers in our everyday life are given below:
1. Home: Television, DVD player, Telephone, Fax machine, Cellular phones, Security systems, Camera, Sewing machine, Musical Instrument, Exercising machine, Video games, Computer, Microwave oven.
2. Office: Computers, Printers, Telephones, Fax machine, Security systems.