Now that we have discussed the basic details of USB including its features, architecture, and protocol, the next topic in the series is USB Descriptors. In context to USB interface, Descriptors are formatted blocks of information, through which, the host device learns about the peripheral. It helps in identifying and configuring the peripheral device.A Descriptor contains information like type of the device, Vendor ID, Compliant USB Version, number of configurations device supports, number of endpoints, etc. The USB peripheral must respond with descriptors when requested by the host. During enumeration, the host uses control transfer to request the device for descriptors.
Our theoretical description of space is the entire observable universe which extends to 13.8 Billion Lightyears (because the universe is 13.8 Billion Years old) through whichever direction we look at it (and is the same from any point of observation in the universe, since the universe is infinite). But, how much have we explored? The furthest distance reached by a machine, the voyager I, is the outskirts of our solar which is a few light hours from earth which it took 35 years to sail in empty space going at an astonishing speed of 1100 Km/sec. Humans, on the other hand have not gone further than the moon (360,000 km away from earth) and are soon planning a trip to mars.
In the near future if you are if you’re late for work and you don’t have time for breakfast your car will be there for your rescue. You will sit back, relax and enjoy your breakfast while your car safely drives you to your destination. No, this is not a sci-fi movie scene I’m talking about. This is soon going to be a reality!Google has been working on driverless cars since 2009. Automakers are currently working on new technology that will allow the cars to drive themselves. The technology uses a Chauffeur system called LIDAR (light detection and ranging). They’re also modifying the existing technologies such as self-parking and pre-safe systems to make the driving safe.
IoT, stands for Internet of things, term was first sprouted in the mind of Kevin Ashton at Auto-ID center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1999. IoT is trending at very high pace in the scientist and researcher society. IoT alone holds a market potential of upto $14 trillion. By this fact we can assume what IoT hold inside for humanity. The IoT infrastructure consist of mainly 4 basic module: WSN or sensor Hub, wireless connectivity solution, cloud computing and storage solution and finally the user device Network. All these nodes can be PC or laptop, mobile device like phone or tablet or any other PDA or embedded computing device.
Cloud in simple word as we all understand is “storage and computing of data on the online server”. Actually there is nothing like “cloud” , its just a metaphor which symbolise the online or remoteness in the digital world. It is referred so by programmer and developer around the world to show the intermidiate medium in any network. Cloud does not exist in real but is a representation of the pool of resource used in the network to process any data.
The first law of thermodynamics states, “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another”. The first part of this law tells us that there is a fixed amount of energy in the universe whereas, the second part gives a sneak peak into how we can utilize the available energy to alter it into a form which is useful to us. The ideal case would be that the entire portion of the source energy be converted to the form of our choice.
There is no argument in that we humans love electricity. We love that stuff so much that you can get an idea about it just by walking out on the street. There is about trillions of money spent in setting up power stations and wires carrying electricity from where it is generated to our homes and offices. Not only this. We love batteries too! An object that gives us power for a while before ending up in the garbage.
Last 5-6 years, I am using MikroC Pro compiler for creating PIC experiments like LED interfacing, LCD interfacing. Earlier I tried MPLAB cross compiler also. I would like to share my experiences with readers.
Robots, the suppositious concept that has been demonstrated like a million times in movies, comes to life with the brilliant exertion of Honda. ASIMO or Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility is a state-of-the-art humanoid robot created by Honda in the year of 2000. Aimed to be a multi-functional portable assistant, ASIMO is intended to function in real-world environments. The creation of ASIMO was envisioned to help people who are bed ridden or disabled. ASIMO beats humans in tasks which can be devastatingly dangerous for them for instance, going in hazardous areas, scrapping fires or defusing a bomb.
The development of an existing technology is measured is terms of increase in efficiency, self-sustainability and/or portability. Since the invention of the light bulb, we have always strived to find a better way to power it. First there was direct current, then alternating current; then the more portable sources like batteries, rechargeable batteries, fuel cells and technologies involving the use of alternative resources of energy (wind, solar, hydroelectric, etc.) to power electrical and electronic devices. But in the field of electronics, size is an important parameter as devices grow smaller and smaller every day whilst providing a greater amount of power and using lower input energy.
The electromagnetic radio spectrum is a natural resource which is licensed and allocated by the government for the use of transmitters and receivers. A spectrum is a collection of wavelengths of radio frequency waves which are available for wireless communication services. These wavelengths are broken down and brackets of these (called ‘Bands’) are allocated for various purposes such as GSM/HSPA, 3G, 4G, TV, Wi-Fi, defense communication, radio broadcasting, mobile satellites, aeronautical satellites, etc. The electromagnetic spectrum is a resource which cannot be depleted but can be over crowded in some bands more than the others due to this static allocation.
Field emission display (FED) is a type of Flat Panel Display which is thinner, brighter, energy-efficient and cheaper display than liquid crystal display (LCD). FED also named as Nano Emissive Display (NED) consist of millions of accelerated electrons charged by very less voltage, compared with high voltage for large-screen, HD LCDs. These electron emitters are controlled by cold cathodes to generate colored light and are emitted towards phosphor plate and this phenomenon creates moving images. FED has a wide viewing angle and provides brightest color among plasma and other latest displays.
None of us wants to hear that annoying humming sound of engine while travelling or unwanted noise while you are listening to your favorite songs or speaking with someone over the phone. May it be the headphones /earphones technology is equipped to remove out noise and give us a pleasant hearing experience. Noise Cancellation is one such efficient technique.
Life has existed for millions of years before electricity was ever developed. All thanks to the giant Nuclear Fusion reactor at the center of our solar system, ‘The Sun’. The Sun generates energy from its core where Hydrogen atoms fuse to create a Helium atom producing tremendous amounts of energy in the process. This energy is essential to life on earth. The sunlight is used by plants to produce food which is directly or indirectly the food source to all living things; it is responsible for seasons; its heat maintains water in its liquid form which is primary for life to exist; sunlight is an essential source of vitamin D to the human body and many more life supporting processes which are either directly or indirectly choreographed by the sun.
You might have seen some videos on the internet where physicists or scientist ‘levitates’ a disk in open air and it keeps itself locked in mid-air without any support. You must have wondered how that is even possible. The simple answer to your question is quantum physics.
A device which controls the current flowing into the channel on application of low-power electrical signal is called a transistor. Roughly, transistors can be classified as Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) and Field Effect Transistors (FETs). In BJTs, a small amount of current is used to control the current flowing into the channel and hence BJTs are also known as current controlled devices. In FETs, a small voltage is used to control the current flowing and hence called as voltage controlled devices. This article briefs about the various types of FETs with a comparison chart. Let’s get started.
How cool it would be when devices on your workbench are interconnected? Creating a personal space for yourself where one of your devices acts as a server or a hub and allows you to access any information from any of your devices!! Sounds cool right? It would be super awesome when such connections are wireless. You can relish many facilities like Internet, GPRS, etc. All this has a technical term “Personal Area Network (PAN)”.
Delivering one of its latest innovations, Linear Technology, home of the Analog Gurus, has expanded its expertise in linear IC products to create the industry’s highest performancedigital-to-analog converter(DAC), the LTC2000. End applications ranging from cable modems and other communications-based applications to test equipment and instrumentation will benefit from this leap in performance. The key to LTC2000’s leadership is in the generation of high frequency and broadbandsignals with a low noise floor and high spectral purity. As shown in figure 1, the spectral purity, as measured by the spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR), exceeds the competition by over 10dB at almost every frequency point.
A FinFET is classified as a type of multi-gate Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). It was first developed at the University of Berkley, California by Chenming Hu and his colleagues. A multi-gate transistor incorporates more than one gate in to one single device. In FinFET, a thin silicon film wrapped over the conducting channel forms the body. The name has been derived from the fact that the structure, when viewed, looks like a set of fins. The thickness of the device determines the channel length of the device.
In 2002, Cypress semiconductors started shipping a family of microcontrollers called Programmable system on chip. This family consists of a CPU core and configurable analog and digital blocks which makes it different from traditional microcontrollers. The traditional chips consist only of CPU cores whereas configurable blocks can be found in FPGA, CPLD and ASIC. A PSoC combines the architecture of both making it one of a kind. A System on Chip is a single chip performing functions of several chips put together.