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Embedded System

Written By: 

Preeti Jain


3.      Interface to physical world
Embedded systems interface with the physical world through Sensors and Actuators. Sensors act as “senses” for an embedded system, whereas actuators act as “limbs”. Varieties of sensors working on variety of sensing principles are used in embedded systems. Light, temperature, acceleration, speed, mass, distance, etc. are common physical parameters which are sensed. Motors are one of the actuators used in many systems.
These transducers interface to the processor through variety of interfaces:
. Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc
. Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, SPI
. Universal Serial Bus (USB)
. Networks: Ethernet, Controller Area Network(CAN), etc
. Discrete IO: General Purpose Input/ Output (GPIO)
. Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog Converter (ADC/DAC).


1.      Computer Architecture
Two common prevalent processor architectures are Neumann Vs Harvard. Von Neumann architectures have same program and data memory space; both shares address bus and data bus. Harvard architecture has different memory space for program and data. For each of them, separate data bus and address bus are provided.  
2.      Instruction Set Architecture(ISA)
ISA serves as an abstraction layer between the software and hardware. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) andComplex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) stand for twodifferent competing philosophies in designing modern computer architecture.
RISC has simple primitiveinstructions and addressing modes. The instructions are of uniform length, execute in one clock cycle & support pipelining. CISC chips have a large amount of variable length, different and complex instructions and take longer than a clock cycle to execute.
CISCchips are relatively slow per instruction compared to RISC chips, but usefewer instructions than RISC. Thus, RISC systems shorten execution time by reducing the clock cycles per instruction, whereas CISC shorten execution time by reducing MIPS R2000 is a typical product of pure RISC and Intel 80386 is a typical kind of pure CISC chip.


inters project



i know




can u send me some main project topics


Niece project. And very help full too.

tommorow is my exam. and  i got what i m searching for. so thank you very much

nice and really informative for begineers :)

but still would have loved if you had mentioned the projects and practices we can do using embedded systems.


But still your informations were root-forming for future aspects !

it was nice explanation



Simple and very neat explation and informative

really cool man

Nice one

Well written and explained.

america is random

thank you ive been telling donkey about this all day. 














































































































































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