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PIC Microcontroller

Written By: 

Nikhil Agnihotri


The microcontrollers played revolutionary role in embedded industry after the invention of Intel 8051. The steady and progressive research in this field gave the industry more efficient, high-performance and low-power consumption microcontrollers. The AVR, PIC and ARM are the prime examples. The new age microcontrollers are getting smarter and richer by including latest communication protocols like USB, I2C, SPI, Ethernet, CAN etc.  

PIC microcontrollers
 PIC Microcontroller
The PIC microcontroller was developed by General Instruments in 1975. PIC was developed when Microelectronics Division of General Instruments was testing its 16-bit CPU CP1600. Although the CP1600 was a good CPU but it had low I/O performance. The PIC controller was used to offload the I/O the tasks from CPU to improve the overall performance of the system.
In 1985, General Instruments converted their Microelectronics Division to Microchip Technology. PIC stands for Peripheral Interface Controller. The General Instruments used the acronyms Programmable Interface Controller and Programmable Intelligent Computer for the initial PICs (PIC1640 and PIC1650).
In 1993, Microchip Technology launched the 8-bit PIC16C84 with EEPROM which could be programmed using serial programming method. The improved version of PIC16C84 with flash memory (PIC18F84 and PIC18F84A) hit the market in 1998.
Since 1998, Microchip Technology continuously developed new high performance microcontrollers with new complex architecture and enhanced in-built peripherals. PIC microcontroller is based on Harvard architecture. At present PIC microcontrollers are widely used for industrial purpose due to its high performance ability at low power consumption. It is also very famous among hobbyists due to moderate cost and easy availability of its supporting software and hardware tools like compilers, simulators, debuggers etc. The 8-bit PIC microcontroller is divided into following four categories on the basis of internal architecture:
1. Base Line PIC
2. Mid-Range PIC
3. Enhanced Mid-Range PIC
4. PIC18
1. Base Line PIC
Base Line PICs are the least complex PIC microcontrollers. These microcontrollers work on 12-bit instruction architecture which means that the word size of instruction sets are of 12 bits for these controllers. These are smallest and cheapest PICs, available with 6 to 40 pin packaging.  The small size and low cost of Base Line PIC replaced the traditional ICs like 555, logic gates etc. in industries.
2. Mid-Range PIC
Mid-Range PICs are based on 14-bit instruction architecture and are able to work up to 20 MHz speed. These controllers are available with 8 to 64 pin packaging. These microcontrollers are available with different peripherals like ADC, PWM, Op-Amps and different communication protocols like USART, SPI, I2C (TWI), etc. which make them widely usable microcontrollers not only for industry but for hobbyists as well.


too lengthlyy...but good

hello awesome post added your RSS.

Respected sir,

         your website is very very useful for me. i search lot of site for embedded c coding , that sites given but not perfect . in other words not easy to understood .

  but your site is great.


  one more suggestion i need help for pic 16f877a  projects i have lot of difficulties to access can u help me .


                                                    thank you sir

gud info....




Beyond the book knowledge.........

i want 2 work on data loging by microcontroller... i thing the information of this website will be very helpfull to me.........


your website is very goodsmileythanks


hi sir,


           Thank u very much for ur website .... really it s very useful to me. then sir i need some of the simple projects using pic16f877a because  i am doing my final year project using pic ly.. if u send me the details about pic16f877a  using simple projects, its may be very helpful to me.


its ok..




sir what is the diffference b/w PIC microcontoller and normal 8051 ?

PIC  has internal ADC, 3 Timers,20Mhz clk frequency &  8k flash memory but 8051 has 2 Timers,12mhz clock frequency,4k rom memory, etc...

any body please help me with a link or website showing the comparison of 8051,pic,avr&arm controller archictecture,pin diagram and special features.

I have a  isp low cost pic programmer.

this programmer can be used to burn tthe microcontroller PIC18F4550.i have generated the hex file by microC IDE.



            PLEASE REPLY




i want low end picprgrammer


really a gud One....

its really a useful one ...................


  I am Sourov Hossain, a student of EEE. In my last year 1st project I want to make a PIC  Microcontroller control circuit. Where the Microcontroller would be interface from PC through USB. But I can not make a USB interface program for  Microcontroller. so I request you, please help me if you can, by giving a program or any document.

thank you very much! Realy usefull



Precious information in an excellent way..

Thank You very much for the site

sir, i want to know that which compiler you have use for PIC programming.  


Is it possible to control 3 stepper motors using PIC microcontroller.



hi sir,'
am new to this forum

i know well about usart and spi

i need know about can protocol.

please help me sir

thank you