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Sensors: Different Types of Sensors

2.   IR Sensor

IR - Infrared Sensor

This device emits and/or detects infrared radiation to sense a particular phase in the environment. Generally, thermal radiation is emitted by all the objects in the infrared spectrum. The infrared sensor detects this type of radiation which is not visible to human eye.
·        Easy for interfacing
·        Readily available in market
·        Disturbed by noises in the surrounding such as radiations, ambient light etc.
The basic idea is to make use of IR LEDs to send the infrared waves to the object. Another IR diode of the same type is to be used to detect the reflected wave from the object. The diagram is shown below.
How IR Sensors work
When IR receiver is subjected to infrared light, a voltage difference is produced across the leads. Less voltage which is produced can be hardly detected and hence operational amplifiers (Op-amps) are used to detect the low voltages accurately.
Measuring the distance of the object from the receiver sensor: The electrical property of IR sensor components can be used to measure the distance of an object. The fact when IR receiver is subjected to light, a potential difference is produced across the leads.
·        Thermography – According to the black body radiation law, it is possible to view the environment with or without visible illumination using thermography
·        Heating – Infrared can be used to cook and heat food items. They can take away ice from the wings of an aircraft. They are popular in industrial field such as, print dying, forming plastics, and plastic welding.
·       Spectroscopy – This technique is used to identify the molecules by analysing the constituent bonds. This technique uses light radiation to study organic compounds.
·        Meteorology – Cloud heights, calculate land and surface temperature is possible when weather satellites are equipped with scanning radiometers.
·        Photobiomodulation – This is used for chemotherapy in cancer patients. This is used to treat anti herpes virus.
·        Climatology – Monitoring the energy exchange between the atmosphere and earth.
·       Communications – Infra red laser provide light for optical fibre communication. These radiations are also used for short range communications among mobiles and computer peripherals. 


Great article

hmmm super,i wants more about sensors

then refer in goolge about sensorswink

Thank U For this article

thanks for and all those things


thanks for increase my knowledge

nice one:)


I am little much familiar with sensors and have experience working with IR,SOUND,LDR sensor.

and don't know the mechanism of Smoke sensor. And which kind of sensor are used for car security.

Kindly post about these matters.


thanx and impressive work by site admins...

excellent information   iam satisfied with this

i like thise artical


nice informations ...... great job !!!

22222222 nicee

thnks for the article



simply awesome documents for all


Can proximity sensors be used for counting no.of persons entering and leaving the door??

If not which sensors can be used for such application??

please reply..!! thanks in advance

hey u can use 2 laser on the door in sequence.....laser light can help u to count the persons entering or leaving the room....


A proximity sensor is a sensor which detects the presence of an object/person. Proximity sensors are used in many applications

I would like to reference this article. Where can I find the publication details related to it? ex author, date of publication etc


thanks in advance

i am greatful to be a part of engineersGarage thanks for your support and also thanks for this team........always be so happy and never forget to smile.

can i ask ?

is there any kind of sensor that can detect sudden change on its target


what is the name of sensor wich use in automatic seed counter machine - its a light sensor where if an object pass through light and detector it will be sens it and count. so can you tell me the name of that sensor ?

PIR sensor

ok ok. nice info.



great article!


How many Electronic sensor? Kindly tel me!

Useful :)


That's great!
 thanks for the article 


very informative article


Thanks for the article! :)

Wish it has source too.

not good


I want info abt those sensor who will detect human body in all direction & range of the sensor should there any sensor like my description..????

u can use pir sensor can  sense human body around 5-6 m in range......


I'm working on ultrasonic sensor for estimating a mobile target, plz, is it possible to send me these article as PDF for using it as a references?

Its informative

very informative and need more inputs on fiber optic and Optical sensors & their applications

its intresting but i want article on sensor module


Really awesome nd clearly understandable ...i got all information that i want...
Hello. And Bye.
Hello. And Bye.
This is good for all guys
Thanks .... So nice

Hi can anyone share with me details of costing/pricing of UV sensors by types?


Which sensor is used to sensor the polycarbonate material?
Hello. And Bye.
Hello. And Bye.
Hello. And Bye.
Hello. And Bye.


Hello. And Bye.
Nice article

yes Thanks for the article but still need more...



Can we use any type of sensors in petrol bunks

good one! :)



It's so good


Still needs more briefing.

this explain is very super thanks for ur artical but need more information



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