Close or Esc Key

Arduino Projects   |   Raspberry Pi   |   Electronic Circuits   |   AVR   |   PIC   |   8051   |   Electronic Projects

RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging)

Table of Contents:

Written By: 

Preeti Jain


If you have sometimes experienced the reflection of a sound due to the presence of a sound reflecting object like a canyon/ cave, etc. you have in a way experienced how radar functions. When you shout near towards a valley or a mountain, the reflection of a sound, i.e., the echo comes back. The time an echo requires to come back can be used to estimate the distance of the reflecting object, provided the speed of sound in air is known. Radar functions in a similar manner to find out the location of the reflection object using RF waves.
So, What is RADAR? Radar is an acronym for RAdio Detecting And Ranging. The name itself suggests that the radars are used to detect the presence of object and determine its range, i.e., 
RADARdistance and bearing, using radio frequency waves.
Radars are being used to measure different parameters
1.      Range                    Using Pulse Delay
2.      Velocity                  From Doppler Frequency Shift
3.      Angular Direction     Using Antenna Pointing
4.      Target Size              From magnitude of reflected energy
5.      Target Shape           Analyzing reflected signal as a function of direction
6.      Moving Parts            Analyzing modulation of the reflected signal
Cost and complexity of radar is dependent upon the number of functions it performs. Radars are used for various applications like Surveillance, imaging, remote sensing, altitude measurement, etc.
Basic principle governing the functionality of radar is due to the properties of radiated electromagnetic energy.
·         The electromagnetic energy travels through space in a straight line, at a constant speed (approximately the speed of light). The propagation of these waves differs slightly because of atmospheric effects.
·         When the electromagnetic waves strike an electrically conductive surface, a part the energy is reflected back towards the source, rest of the reflected energy gets radiated in different directions.
·         Receipt of reflected energy towards the source is an indication of the obstacle in the direction of propagation.
These basic principles are utilised in Radar to determine distance, and bearings of the target, i.e., a reflecting object.
The block diagram of a primary Radar is shown below:
How RADAR Works
·         Transmitter
The radar transmitter produces microwave signal, which is typically short duration high-power RF- pulses of energy for a pulsed radar.
·         Duplexer
Duplexer acts as a switch; it switches the antenna between the transmitter and receiver. This obviates the need for separate transmitting and receiving antennas. Duplexer prevents high power energy to go into receiver (high power pulses can damage the receiver) while transmission and prevents reflected signal to be fed to the transmitter during reception.
·         Antenna
The transmitting antenna radiates the transmitting energy to signals in space, in desired directions.
The radiated energy propagates with constant velocity. When it finds the target, the energy is scattered, a part of which is reflected towards the transmitting antenna. The antenna receives the reflected energy and feed it to the duplexer. The duplexer directs this energy towards the receiver.
·         Receiver
The receiver demodulates the received reflected energy and analyzes the signal to find target parameters.
·         Display
The receiver sends the output to display, which shows the analyzed signal in an easily understandable user friendly manner.


This is very valuable information about RADAR in very depict format. 


In the expression included in point #7.      Radar Resolutions



Where, q is antenna beamwidth and R is the slant range.

there is no 'q' given.

is it q*R*sin(?/2)?

Otherwise, the article is flawless and very useful...