In the last tutorial on CRO I gave you a detailed idea about the various components of an Oscilloscope concerned with the positioning and magnification of an input signal and the role of probes was also explained. Now since you have been acquainted with the primary knobs of a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope it’s time to dive deeper and to know more about the other knobs which are helpful in further observation of a signal. Interestingly, CRO comes with numerous options regarding input functions and all the functions are quite distinctive in their approach. This article would detail with all the basic functions and special functions that a standard CRO device has. Moreover, there is also an interesting example of how these functions participate to make a CRO complete a given task. So, keep on reading to discover another chapter of this interesting measuring and analytical gadget.

## CRO Tutorial 1 : Understanding a CRO

In the tutorial/lesson we are going to learn about the practical details which are necessary for a layman to use one of the very important device in electronics known as Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope abbreviated as CRO or just Oscilloscope or earlier known as Oscillograph. At the completion of this tutorial we will be able to operate the CRO as per our requirement in different activities or experiments. What is a CRO and what is it used for? An Oscilloscope is an electronic device generally used to obtain the wave-form of different signals applied to it. Unlike a MultiMeter which is also used for the measurement of the values of different signals or resistances or any other electrical parameter, which depicts the instantaneous values of an electrical parameter, an Oscilloscope on the other hand expands the time window for the observer to have a better picture regarding the properties of the signal applied to it.

## Digital Signal Processing: Sampling and Discrete-time Signals

In my previous tutorial, I gave a brief idea about the fundamentals of signals and their classification. Now we are going to take a step further in this direction. To do the processing part we first need to understand discrete-time signals, classification and their operations. In this tutorial major emphasis will be given on Discrete-time signals and discrete-time systems.First we need to understand what is a Sampling process? Why do we need sampling? The answer to the first question is that Sampling is a process of breakage of continuous signal to discrete signal. In a layman definition the output of system is recorded at different intervals of time, these intervals of time may not necessarily be uniform but in this series of tutorials we will limit our discussion to only Uniform-Sampling.

## Digital Signal Processing Tutorial: Discrete Time Systems and their Classification

In the previous tutorial we learnt about the Sampling Process, Discrete-time signals, their classification and also had an idea about transformation of discrete-time signals. These topics are the most basic and important entities of DSP. Now we will be studying about the systems which process these signals to give the desired form of output signals. What we are going to learn in this tutorial: Discrete-time Systems, Classification of Discrete-time Systems. Discrete-time systems, “A set of connected parts or models which takes discrete-time signals as input, known as excitation, processes it under certain set of rules and algorithms to have a desired output of another discrete-time signal, known as response”. Discrete-time systems are classified on different principles to have a better idea about a particular system, their behavior and ultimately to study the response of the system. Continue reading to get this ultimate dose of knowledge with Digital Signal Processing.

## Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

Digital signal processing is the area of electronics which is on the rise for the past few years because of the inclusion and application of VLSI (very large scale integration) systems in DSP. It deals with the methods to extract information through various techniques from digital or analog signals through digital processors/hardware. Prior to getting the insight of Digital Signal Processing we need to have some fundamental ideas about function, signals, types of signals etc.To start with the learning of digital signal processing we first need to know about the concept of functions and signals. Functions are, in a clear mathematical way, dependent variable of one or more independent variable but the should be one to one or many to one correspondence between the independent and the dependent variable.Signal is a function that carries some information with it which may or may not be potentially useful.

## Digital Signal Processing Tutorial 2

In my previous tutorial, I gave a brief idea about the fundamentals of signals and their classification. Now we are going to take a step further in this direction. To do the processing part we first need to understand discrete-time signals, classification and their operations. In this tutorial major emphasis will be given on Discrete-time…