Bluetooth is defined as layered protocol architecture because each layer supports the layer above and below it. The complete protocol stack consists[[wysiwyg_imageupload::]] of both Bluetooth specific protocols which are clearly defined or developed for Bluetooth like LMP and non-Bluetooth specific that were designed to enable the re-use of existing protocols for various functions. Non-specific protocols can be used with many other platforms like WAP, UDP AND OBEX. These were used to speed up the development of Bluetooth protocol at higher layers at the same time adaptation to work with Bluetooth devices and ensure interoperability. Bluetooth protocol comprises of a number of protocols which can be divided into four categories: telephony control protocol, cable replacement protocol, adopted protocol, telephony control protocol. Each of these protocols is responsible for specific type of task and stands on its own. The concept of master, slaves, Pico nets and scatter net forming ad-hoc network. This part of Bluetooth will deal with the protocols responsible for the working of Bluetooth technology.
Handheld devices like a cell phone, palmtop and laptop were rapidly becoming an integral part of our daily lives. In most cases, these devices do not have compatible data communication interfaces, or, if they do, the interface requires cumbersome cable connections and configuration procedures. Isn’t it absolutely fantastic to connect your PC to share music, data and calendar info without using any wires? Or to wirelessly access phone numbers on your PDA from your cell phone.
Recently, Intel pulled up the benchmarks of entertainment in PyeongChang at the 2018 winter games opening ceremony. The first every light show by a drone also established a Guinness Worlds Record making it one of the most unparallel events in the world. The new record registered here received this title for “maximum number of unmanned aerial vehicles airborne simultaneously.”
Qorvo recently made some new additions to its unique RF portfolio of integrated modules, amplifiers, and switches. These are meant to serve a complete range of wireless infrastructure, broadband access applications, and optical network along with DOCSIS 3.1 systems. These are high performing solutions that will simplify RF for designers across the world and can be availed from authorized channel partners of Qorvo.
Renesas Electronics Corporation, one of the leading suppliers of highly developed semiconductor solutions recently came forth with its e2 studio Integrated Development Environment (IDE) tool for Renesas Synergy Platform. This ongoing partnership with thee premier supplier of embedded tools, IAR Systems, will allow Renesas Synergy to provide its customers with a chance to relish upgraded performance when they integrate IAR Systems advanced C/C++ based IAR Compiler™ into an Eclipse based e2 studio IDE.
Recently, a simple day turned out to be a huge milestone for the wireless world when the world saw finalization of 3GPP Non-Standalone (NSA) 5G New Radio (NR) Standard. This formalization of NSA standard establishes the upcoming Standalone (SA) version and would symbolize a noteworthy step towards future of industry. With the help of NSA 5G NR, all players across ecosystem have been able to rally near the single internationally recognized specification for 5G radio configurations.
IAR Systems, one of the most future-oriented suppliers of software services and tools for embedded development, recently declared tool support for the latest LPC54018 MCU-based IoT module from the NXP Semiconductors. The made use of a supreme level development toolchain IAR Embedded Workbench meant for ARM. it would allow developers to easily and quickly develop highly potent applications based on latest module. The IoT module extracted from LPC54018 MCU shows complete support for Amazon FreeRTOS, along with a seamless Wi-Fi connectivity with Amazon Web Services (AWS)
The world famous provider of advanced automotive semiconductor solutions, Renesas Electronics Corporation, recently declared its plans for development of new generation autonomous, Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), and connected cockpit vehicles. The three Renesas demonstration vehicles by Renesas feature several advanced systems ranging from sensor fusion to connected cockpits to ADAS, these vehicles are equipped with several integrated systems ready to be imbibed in newly produced cars.These systems will allow the Tier’s 1s and OEMs to resolve the complications related with designing of autonomous vehicles as the industry is rapidly pacing ahead from testing and simulation.
Airbiquity and Renesas Electronics recently announced a high-performance, secure automotive solution embedded with Over-The-Air (OTA) capabilities. It will provide support for futuristic automated driving applications, Vehicle-To-Everything (V2X) as well as Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). For this project the two firms not only joined their resources but also their knowledge banks and talent pools/ Renesas is a supplier of most advanced semiconductor solutions while Airbiquity is one of the best connected vehicle services provider on the globe.It is another initiative in the direction of autonomous driving era by two globally leading companies.
RSL10 has gained a solid position in the industry for offering the lower power consuming system. This one will absorb only 62.5nW in a Deep Sleep mode or just 7mW in the Rx Receive mode. It has been designed to provide super low-power wireless connectivity to connected wearables and IoT devices like the wellness and health systems. The firm designed RSL 10 SoC for applications that used 1.2V and 1.5 V batteries and supporting a range of 1.1V – 3.6V voltage supply without any external DC/DC converter. The highly-integrated RSL10 also features a 2.4GHz transceiver and a dual-core architecture. It enables the device to be flexible enough to get in touch with Bluetooth low energy rays, custom protocols, and 2.4GHz proprietary protocols.
Maxim’s charger designers recently came up with simplest approach for faster adn safer charging of USB Type-C portable devices that make use of 2-series Li-ion battery packets. One of the firsts in market is the 15 W MAX 14748 USB Type-C charger and charging detection solution. The makers claim that this one has much higher efficiency and integration than all others in its domain. This new charger skips the ICs patchwork that was previously needed for delivery of similar capabilities. At the same time, it also enables the designers to take leverage of selective USB Type-C functions that are needed for a specific design. These new USB Type-C charger would prove beneficial for numerous equipment ranging from motorized medical devices to virtual reality headsets, high-end cameras, wireless speakers and so forth.
Renesas Electronics Corporation and Dibotics recently announced their collaboration for presenting an automotive-grade embedded solution for LiDAR processing. LiDAR processing is a special mechanism used in automated driving applications and advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). The solution developed under guidance of both these firms will allow system makers to come up with a real-time 3D mapping system that will have high level functional safety and very low power consumption.Under present scenario, LiDAR processing demands an upgraded embedded software and a highly efficient processing platform.
The Halberstadt Cathedral located in Saxony-Anhair, Germany is a 15th Century monument and was in desperate need of preservation. Recently, it received help from Intel’s Falcon 8+ drone for the same. Intel will be monitoring the monument to assess the level of damage it is facing for now. For this purpose, it is working in collaboration with Kulturstiftung Sachsen-Anhait and Bauhaus University from Weimar.The Falcon 8+ took multiple indoor and outdoor missions to collect data that will be analysed to see what next needs to be done for restoration of this historic monument and how to keep its artwork intact for centuries to come.
In last few decades, Intel has gained a reputation for setting up new benchmarks in terms of performance, connectivity, and product value. Recently, it came up with two new processors extending its two famous product lines – Pentium and Celeron. The unveiled processors are named as Intel Pentium Silver and Intel Celeron processors. Both these are extracted from an Intel architecture codenamed as Gemini Lake. These new configurations have been engineered to set new standards of performance and connectivity for everyday tasks. It is meant for people dealing with online browsing, spreadsheets, watching online shows and movies and other normal stuff.
Fujitsu Laboratories Ltd. recently came up with a WAN acceleration technology equipped with an ability to transfer large volumes of data between clouds with speeds scaling up to 40Gbps. It uses Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) as catalysts to complete the process. The measure of connectivity on Wide Area Networking lines between clouds is already ticking up from 1Gbps to 10 Gbps, however, this is not enough. The advent of new technologies like AI and IoT steps up the urgency of high-speed data transference. Clouds overwhelmed with too much data would tend to go unstable if it is not transferred to other clouds with at a higher pace
The MP3 format is a compression tool to reduce the size of the song of without noticeably affecting the quality of the sound. Every day hundreds and thousands of MP3 file are shared and downloaded.With this format a 32 mega byte song is compressed to about 3MB which allows fast downloads and storage of hundreds of songs on our computers hard disk. It has changed the traditional ways which people used to find, listen and store music.Do you know if we stretch out all the data stored on a single compact disc in the straight line it would be over 4 miles long. Surprised! Ok let’s do the math to understand better. Music in a CD is sampled at 44,100 times per second. The samples are 2 bytes (16 bits) long.
What is USB? UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS What does it do?It connects your laptop or PC to the peripheral devices attached to it.How does it communicate?You attach the device using a cable to PC and communication is initiated within a fraction of seconds. However, what looks easy on our end is a complicated process in the USB system. It may be single step in our stride to attach the device and start working but for the system it’s entirely a different picture. In that fraction of second after the device is attached, it initiates step by step process to make communication possible. It starts right from alerting the PC about the attachment, change in voltages at ports, then addressing the devices, gathering the information, loading the drivers and finally communication. Let’s understand each of these steps in detail to get a crystal clear picture about the working of USB.
SPI protocol has earned a solid role in embedded systems whether it is system on chip processors, both with higher end 32-bit processors such as those using ARM, MIC or Power PC and with other microcontrollers such as the AVR, PIC etc. These chips usually include SPI controllers capable of running in either master or slave mode. In-system programmable AVR controllers can be programmed using an SPI interface.Chip or FPGA based designs sometimes use SPI to communicate.So, SPI is a common technology used nowadays for communication with peripheral devices where we want to transfer data speedily and with in real time constraints. There are many serial interfaces right from Morse code telegraphy, RS232, USB, Fire wire, Ethernet and many more. Each serial interface offers advantages or disadvantages for many designs,depending on criteria such as needed data rate, space availability, and noise considerations.
Simple analog communication over the telephone wires to the typical USB cables for data exchange, we surely have come a long way in the field of communication. RS232 was the first milestone reached in this journey. It was a standard for electromechanical typewriters and modems for digital data exchange introduced in 1962 by the Radio Sector of EIA. It made the data exchange more reliable over analog channel. The standard defined voltage levels that made it immune to noise disturbances and reduced the error in data exchange.As the technology was growing many electronic devices were being developed during this time like computers, printers, test instrument etc. There came a time where manufacturers felt the need to exchange information between these electronic devices. For example data exchange between a computer and a printer or two computers. But there was no standard or method to accomplish this task. RS232 was the only available standard at the time which was used for data exchange. So, they thought of adopting this standard in electronic devices for digital data exchange.
Controller Area Network or CAN protocol is a method of communication between various electronic devices like engine management systems, active suspension, ABS, gear control, lighting control, air conditioning, airbags, central locking etc embedded in an automobile.CAN initially developed for in-vehicle networking of automobiles has expanded its applications in various other industries. The application started for luxurious cars is now being used in heavy duty vehicles like trucks, buses, trains and rail vehicles. The unique feature of CAN that allows various electronic units to communicate with each other made it important in healthcare domain. For example intensive care units and operating rooms where time and communication is of utmost importance. Entertainment industry also used CAN protocols to improve features in studios to control lights and door system and to control stage of theatres, event halls etc. Gambling machines and toys are other examples in entertainment field. In the field of science the high energy experiments and astronomical telescope use CAN in embedded network.