This tutorial will help you to understand the necessity of the PCB. Here, I have described the evolution of PCB in different steps. Connecting a circuit without any soldering gun or breadboard is a complex process. I tried to connect an amplifier circuit with a transistor, four resistors, and three capacitors, which you can see in the video.
If we connect different electronics components directly with wire or their leads, we have to face a lot of problems like, loose connection, problems in troubleshooting, low reliability, low durability etc. Also if we try to move it from one place to other, we may lose the connections due to no physical support. The only solution to avoid these all problems is “PCB”.PCB:PCB stands for “Printed circuit board”. In this, wire connections printed as copper tracks. It can provide physical support to the circuit. It can avoid loose connections, and testing and troubleshooting the circuit may become also simple.
KiCad is free software suit for EDA (Electronic design automation), which was created in 1992 by Jean-pierre charras. It has GNU and GPL licenses. I have selected KiCad software to explain PCB tutorials. Since it is open source software, anyone can try this and practice my tutorials. Work-flow:Before getting started with KiCad, we must know about some basics and work flow of KiCad. In this tutorial, I am going to explain KiCad work flow, step by step. Please follow the same procedure when working with KiCad.
When we are designing a PCB in any CAD software, we need to find suitable components. Like, if we need resistor, we must be clear about component type, dimensions (optional), SMD component or through hole component, and different parameters. Any EDA software consists of components libraries. We can select a required component from library, but the library may not have all the components. If we need any component which is not present in the library, then we need to create and save it in the library so as to use it in future. In KiCad, we can use library editor to create a new component. Library editor is a part of Eeschema. Before creating a component we need to gather sufficient details about component, like pin diagram, pin configuration, its size, shape, dimension etc. So before starting library editor, go though the component data sheet.
In small circuits, we can connect components directly with wire (using “place wire” option). But in complex circuits like motherboard circuit, we may have to establish a lot of connections between different sections, whereby many connections may overlap. So, there is a chance of getting confused in circuit designing. Also, the probability of getting errors is more. We can overcome this problem by using labels or Net names (Net Labels). Net is a simple electrical connection between components. We can create Net by using place wire.
In PCB designing, the first step is Creating circuit or schematic capture. In this, we have to draw the schematic with necessary Electronic components. This step includes adding components, connections with wire, verifying the circuit, etc. To create a circuit in KiCad, we have to use Eeschema. It is powerful schematic capture software distributed as part of KiCad and is limited only by the available memory. Thus, there is no real limitation to the number of components, component pins, connections, or sheets. In the case of multi-sheet diagrams, the representation is hierarchical. Note: Above table contains only some commonly used and important Eeschema options. I haven’t covered all of them.
RF Modules are commonly used for transmission of data over small distances. They do not need a line of sight unlike infrared sensors and can transmit data despite of any physical barriers between the transmitter and the receiver. These low band radio communication modules are extremely popular among electronics hobbyists and serious consumer product designers alike. This project is a demonstration of using RF transmission for controlling loads or appliances installed in a remote location. Since RF modules use low band radio frequencies and operate over small distances, this application can be utilized in a home or office environment for remote controlling appliances or electronic gadgets.
434 MHz RF Modules are commonly used in the electronics projects. These modules can transmit data at a rate of 1Kbps to 10Kbps and send or receive data over a distance of 50-60 metres.The module already has an impressive operational range which is suitable for most of the DIY projects. However, some projects may require transmitting data over a greater range.
RF Modules are low band radio frequency communication circuits that are used for transmission of digital data over small distances. Hence these modules are quite useful in making consumer electronics products or DIY projects for home or office environment. The 434 MHz RF module is a standard RF transmission product that is extremely popular and extensively used by hobbyists and the product engineers. Learn fundamental details about the RF communication and the basic setup of RF transmitter and receiver.These standard 434 MHz RF modules have a data rate of 1Kbps to 10Kbps. They can operate over a distance of 50 to 80 meters without any antenna
This electronics project is a modification of RC circuit by attaching an antenna to it and increasing the transmission power for increasing the RF range. RF Modules are extensively used by the electronics hobbyists. They are also used in large number of consumer electronics products. These modules are used for wireless data transmission and for implementing remote control systems. The 434 MHz RF module is the most commonly used module available in the markets. These modules are capable of transmitting 4-bit data at once at a data rate of 1Kbps to 10 Kbps. Learn about the RF transmission and basic setup of the RF transmitter and receiver modules.
RF Modules are commonly used wireless communication modules in embedded systems designs. The 434 MHz RF module is quite popular among many others available in the market. These are capable of transmitting 4-bit data or a set of four control signals at a time. Out of 12-bit serial data, which is transferred, 4 bits are dedicated to data while 8 bits are dedicated to the section’s (Transmitter or Receiver) identification address.This feature of RF modules allows application of a universal transmitter section in two different waysIn this case, the transmitter section has to be configured to have a fixed address byte and all the RF receiver sections are configured to have that same address byte.
The 434MHz RF modules are commonly used for wireless data transmission and remote controlling over a distance of few hundreds of metre. The RF transmitter and RF receiver pair with each other on the basis of their address bytes. If an RF transmitter and an RF receiver have same address byte, they are able to transmit and receive data respectively. Learn about the basic setup of RF transmitter and receiver and how radio communication happens over an RF module. The RF transmitter and RF receiver pair with each other on the basis of their address bytes. If an RF transmitter and an RF receiver have same address byte, they are able to transmit and receive data respectively.
The 434 RF modules are capable of transmitting 4-bit data at a data rate of 1Kbps to 10Kbps. They can operate over an impressive range of 70 to 300 metre. These modules are widely used for remote controlling devices or other loads. First learn about the basic setup of RF transmitter and receiver and how the RF modules work.In a remote control application if loads or devices are directly interfaced to the RF receiver a maximum of 4 devices or loads can be controlled by the RF module. This is because a 4-bit data transmission allows only four control signal at the four data pins of the receiver’s decoder IC individually.
Stadium lights consume a lot of electricity. They are high beam lights with high wattage rating. A lot of electricity can be saved by controlling the intensity of these lights manually or automatically. For controlling the intensity of light, the voltage supply to the lights need to be controlled. This project is a demonstration of…
In the previous tutorial, it has been already learnt how to connect a Zig-Bee module with a PC using FTDI USB to Serial converter cable or USB cable and an Arduino board and various AT commands were tested. In this tutorial, a Zig-Bee module will be used to read analog data and transmit it to another module. The Zig-Bee module comes with 6 Analog Input pins and 8 digital input output pins. Any analog input pin can be used to read analog voltage. For reading analog voltage, a reference voltage needs to be set for the module. The process of reading analog data from Zig-Bee module and passing the data to another module is called Analog I/O Line Passing.
The distance measurement project is very helpful project, which can be used in cars to avoid accidents, or in any distance monitoring systems in industry, and also can be used in liquid level indicators like fuel tanks in planes. This system consists of ultrasonic sensor with microcontroller and display. The sensor, display and circuit are connected with wires. So if it is required to place sensor and display at some distance (say 2-3 meter or more) then we have to make long wire connection. But in some systems it is required to monitor / measure distance from remote place. Like the sensor is connected in wireless robotic vehicle and we need to know the distance of any object around the vehicle at a remote place. In that case it is required to transmit the sensor output and display it on LCD at remote place. This is possible with the help of RF technology.
In the previous tutorial, Analog I/O Line Passing between two X-Bee modules was done. In this tutorial, X-Bee modules will be used to read and transmit digital data. The X-Bee modules are often used with the microcontrollers which may pass data to the module as digital data. Even the module itself is capable of sensing digital data from sensors and switches as it has 8 digital input/output pins. For reading or writing digital data, these pins or any of these pins can be configured to read or write operation.
In industries, intruder alarms plays vital role in security. Existing industrial intruder alarms are wire based and alarms are placed on the wall. In this system a big alarm with loud sound works as alert. If some intruder enters then alarm activates and produces loud siren. Now consider another system. What if alarm is in hand of the security guards? There is only one sensor but there are several hand held simple alert alarms one with each security guard. Then it will become advance and impressive security system. But this is not possible with existing wire based system. To achieve this we have to transmit one signal to several alarms at a time and for that we have to use RF wireless technology. The new thing in this project is, it uses only one intruder sensing system and activates lot of hand held alarms. Means only one transmitter activates several receivers at a time.
There are two methods to increase transmission range of 434 MHz RF Tx module. 1. Increase applied input power – transmitted power2. Attach an antenna to Tx module In previous article I have explained first method. Please refer previous article of this series. In this session we will see another method. That means we will attach an antenna to Tx and Rx module. Antenna is a special type of transducer, which can convert alternating current in to radio frequency fields and vice versa. Transmitting antenna generates RF fields, and receiving antenna converts RF fields in to alternating current.
There are many devices for visually impaired people. This project is also an attempt to develop an aid for visually impaired persons. This project is a smart stick which is capable of detecting any obstacle, detect water and corners and even allow the user to find the stick if anyhow missed by the user by pressing a remote switch.The device is designed with an intention to sort out common issues faced by the blind people while using traditional sticks. With the electronics embedded within the stick, it became a smart stick with the functionalities mentioned above. The smart stick is built on Arduino Pro Mini. This Arduino board is small enough to install on a regular stick and has buzzer, LDR sensor, Ultrasonic sensor and a water detector sensor interfaced to it.