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In the previous tutorial - More Combinational Circuits, the basic concepts of encoder, decoder, multiplexer and demultiplexer were discussed. An encoder is used to code digital information according to a pre-defined code system (like BCD, Gray, etc). An encoder inputs data (like from a keypad or keyboard) representing familiar numbers or characters or symbols and output coded binary numbers. So, it inputs the alphabetic characters and decimal numbers from an input device via individual wire lines and produces the outputs as binary coded representation of the input symbols. 

In the first tutorial of this series - Introduction to Digital Electronics, it was mentioned that there are different code systems that are used to represent digital information as binary numbers. Each code system has different binary numbers assigned to same symbols and characters. The different digital systems may be using different code systems. In such case, there must remain some code conversion circuit to make the interconnected digital systems compatible. 

In a previous tutorial - Arithmetic Circuits, digital circuits for performing arithmetic operations were designed. Like Arithmetic operations, comparison of numbers is also an important mathematical operation. From computing perspective, the comparison of numbers plays vital role in decision making and logical operations. In digital systems, the numbers are in the form of binary numbers. The comparison of two numbers determines whether one number is greater than, equal, or less than the other number.