Robotic cars are commonly used for outdoor operations. These are designed for different purposes and applications. These robotic vehicles are meant to move over a surface and reach a spot to carry out the intended application or perform specific tasks. The robotic cars can be controlled with a remote control which may be connected to the robot either through a wired connection or a wireless interface. The wireless connectivity is usually provided by Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, RF or mobile networks. One of the RF technologies available for providing wireless connection is Zigbee.
In robotics, wireless robots are commonly used for applications that need to be operated remotely. Usually such robots are controlled with a remote control that connects with the robot using a wireless technology like RF, Zigbee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or Mobile network. In this tutorial, a wireless robot will be designed that will connect with the remote control using 434 MHz RF module. The remote control will have a keypad to control the movement of the robot. Keypads are one of the commonly used Human Machine Interfaces (HMI) and play an important role in small embedded systems where human interaction or human input is needed.Matrix keypads are well known for their simple architecture and ease of interfacing.
In factories and industries it is common to deal with the use of harmful and poisonous gases. There are situations in which the concentration and volume of these type of gases need to be monitored in an apparatus. Because these gases can be harmful to humans, it is not safe to employ humans for such tasks.So, robots can be used monitor different parameters related to the use of such gases in an apparatus or gas filled chamber. In this tutorial, a wireless robot is designed which can move inside a chamber or well and detect the level of concentration of the gas at the spot.
In one of the previous projects “Hand Gesture Controlled Wireless Robot”, it was discussed how remote controls with switches or buttons used for controlling wireless robots have a disadvantage in controlling the robot due to response time factor of the human handling it. As a solution to the problem, use of advanced human-computer interfaces like the gesture recognition, eye movement tracking, and brain waves was suggested. Of which, hand gestures were used in the previous project to control the robot. In this tutorial, a wireless robot will be designed that will be controlled by the joystick. A joystick is not a new input device but it provides better control over the subject. It is easier to use and handle by a human operator.
In industries, intruder alarms plays vital role in security. Existing industrial intruder alarms are wire based and alarms are placed on the wall. In this system a big alarm with loud sound works as alert. If some intruder enters then alarm activates and produces loud siren. Now consider another system. What if alarm is in hand of the security guards? There is only one sensor but there are several hand held simple alert alarms one with each security guard. Then it will become advance and impressive security system. But this is not possible with existing wire based system. To achieve this we have to transmit one signal to several alarms at a time and for that we have to use RF wireless technology. The new thing in this project is, it uses only one intruder sensing system and activates lot of hand held alarms. Means only one transmitter activates several receivers at a time.
This is a 2 player game, based on 8051 microcontroller AT89S52. This game features two push buttons (one for each player) and an array of 8 LEDs for each. It demands high reflexes, as you have to push button as fast as you can. Each press would help the successive LED to glow until all the 8 LEDs are on. The competition is about how fast you can toggle (Press and then un-press) the buttons, greater your speed of pressing push button, greater will be your chance of winning. As soon as any of the two players reach the last LED, the push button of another player will get deactivated, which means it will not respond to the push. Also the LEDs of the winner will start toggling. This will ensure the accurate after results. To restart the game, press the reset button (button connected to pin 9 on microcontroller).
The circuit presented here is used to transmit and receive low frequency pulses using IR modulator and demodulator. IR modulator takes low frequency pulses as input. It modulates them on 38 KHz carrier and transmits them through IR LED as 38 KHz IR light. On the demodulator side IR sensor detects (receives) 38 KHz IR light. It demodulates this 38 KHz pulses and recovers transmitted low frequency pulses. One pulse generator is built using IC555 to generate low frequency pulses. IR modulator is also built using IC555 and TSOP1738 IR sensor is used as IR demodulator.
This power saving circuit is used to save electricity while ironing. The circuit will switch OFF the iron box when it is not in use. Once the ON time of the circuit is crossed, it will produce an alarm. If we press the Reset button at the time of alarm it will turned OFF the alarm and extend the ON time of the circuit to the next 4 minutes. This circuit will work as a reminder for those who always forget to turn OFF the iron box in this day to day busy life.In this circuit is build around NE 555(IC1), op-amp LM 358 (IC2) and few components. IC1 is designed as a standard monostable multivibrator and its trigger pin 2 is held high by resistor R1.LM 358 is configured as a comparator. Its non-inverting input (pin 3) and the inverting input (pin 2). Inverting pin 2 of IC2 is connected to voltage-divider preset VR1. Using preset VR1 we can vary the reference voltage at pin 2. Buzzer is connected to the output pin 1. Initially output pin 1 of IC2 is low.
Definitely, mosquitoes are annoying and it can spread diseases also. The best way to destroy mosquito is electronic killing using Swatter. It eliminates the use of toxic chemicals. The mosquito coils and liquids do not kill mosquito but they repel them only. Mosquitoes will return back when the chemical disappears from the atmosphere. The swatter is…
This is the most amazing and commercially viable project in which the web-cam attached to your computer will move in all four direction up-down and left-right with the help of your fingertips. The software written in VC++ will control two different AC motors with the help of computer mouse. The forward and reverse motion of…
In the previous tutorial, ESP8266 module was used to design a Home Area Network to control an LED light from a remote PC. The PC client was used to send control signals to switch on and off the LED light in the Home Area Network. In this tutorial, the ESP module will be interfaced with DHT-11 temperature sensor and temperature data will be sent to the PC client for real-time temperature monitoring. In this project, instead of LED, the DHT-11 sensor will be interfaced with the ESP8266 on ESP Client side.
There are 2 cut off frequencies for band reject filter. First is the upper cut off frequency (f1) -which is the frequency below which all the frequencies are passed. The second is the lower cut off frequency (f2) – which are all the frequencies above this frequency are passed.Similar to band pass filter but the difference is f1 < f2. That means upper cut off frequency is lesser than lower cut off frequency. Two types of band reject filters are
Real time clock is a digital clock which display real time on 16×2 LCD display. Here in this circuit we can also set alarm and time. The DS1307 serial real-time clock (RTC) is a low-power, full binary-coded decimal (BCD) clock/calendar plus 56 bytes of NV SRAM. Address and data are transferred serially through an I²C, bidirectional bus.The clock/calendar provides seconds, minutes, hours, day, date, month, and year information. The end of the month date is automatically adjusted for months with fewer than 31 days, including corrections for leap year. The clock operates in either the 24-hour or 12-hour format with AM/PM indicator.
This project makes use of three out of the eight ADCs present in AtMega16 IC to display the corresponding digital data of X, Y and Z outputs of an accelerometer on 16X2 LCD.It’s very easy to deal with such kind of modules as they just need the VCC and GND supply to get started, rest it is its job to provide us the analog data.These modules work on simple concept like that of force acting on an object at inclined plane. It deals with the Mg(sin ?) and Mg(cos ?) part of the force and calculate the angle ? for further calculations. Now it also notices the change in force from which acceleration will be calculated.
Mobile controlling is done mainly with DTMF decoder. DTMF stands for Dual Tone Multi Frequency. This module can take up-to 4 bits of data at a time (i.e. 0-15 decimal values).DTMF needs two mobile platforms, one for sending instructions while another for receiving them. This module contains a IC which decodes the signals received and convert it into 4 bit data.
With increasing technology, Automation has become a need whether it is home, office or some other place. At home we come across many appliances be it Fan, AC, TV, Lights, etc. What if you could operate all of them with the Android Phone you’re holding in your Hand..!!This Project aims to incorporate android phone control over electrical appliances. We use Bluetooth communication between Android phone and a Receiver (control unit) that is connected to the appliances.
This Battery charger can replenish any kind of 12 V Inverter battery or Car battery and keep it in top condition. The charger never allows the battery to Over charge or Deep discharge. It automatically charges the battery when its terminal voltage drops below 12 volts and switch off the charging process when the terminal…
In the previous tutorial, fundamentals of audio filters were discussed. The audio filters can be passive or active depending upon the use of passive or active components in their designing. On the basis of frequency response, filters can be classified as high pass, low pass, band pass, Notch, band reject, T-Notch, all pass and equalizer filters. In this tutorial, an audio crossover will be designed. The Audio crossover is an electronics circuit which splits the audio signal into two or more frequency bands. These frequency bands are then, sent to the different audio drivers (Twitters, Mid Range and Woofers). A single speaker is not capable to serve the whole range of audible frequencies due to the limitations of its construction. So, different drivers (speakers) are required to deliver different range of audio frequencies.
Arduino has a wide variety of applications. It can find its use in almost all fields. Its applications increase day by day because it’s open source and anyone can create a new set of functions and library to interface any new device with arduino. The given application demonstrates the use of arduino as tone and melody generator. It includes keypad and LCD for user interface. The music notes or melody is generated when the key is pressed and the frequency of generated sound is displayed on LCD. It illustrates keypad and LCD interfacing with Arduino along with tone – melody generation. The complete functionality of this project is due to the software program loaded into internal FLASH memory of arduino board microcontroller ATMega328.
Presently, I am thinking of changing something depending on my attention and meditation level, say the brightness of a small LED. We will be controlling the brightness of an LED using the attention and meditation levels of our Brain at any particular time. We will be using Arduino UNO and mindflex sensor which we have chosen to read the brain wave and an LED to show the results. We are changing the brightness of the LED which can be easily controlled using PWM technique.