A lead acid battery is composed of series of plates immersed in a solution of Sulphuric acid. Each plate has a Grid on which the active material is attached. In the negative plate, lead oxide is attached as the active material while on the positive plate, pure lead is attached. All the negative plates are connected together. Similarly all the positive plates are also connected together.
1. Self discharge- if the battery is not cycling for long period
2. Capacity loss- due to sulphation, improper charging, dry battery etc.
3. Overcharging- excessive float charge
4. Dendrite growth- formation of crystal growth on the plates
5. Sulphation- formation of lead sulphate layer on the plate
6. Grid corrosion- degradation of plate grids
7. Excess heat and water loss- overcharging with high current
2. Over charging
5. The charger should be connected to the AC socket only after it is connected to the battery terminals. This prevents sparking in the terminals.
7. Always disconnect the negative terminal first.