Gardening is one of the common hobbies. It keeps you close to nature. It is healthiest hobby that anyone can have. Though, plants and trees are like pets. They need continuous care without break. One needs to be with them all time. This is not always possible. One may have to go for vacations or business trips or travel for other reasons. At such times, the garden may remain unattended for some time or even could be left unattended for a long period of time.
Vehicle is part of our busy life but if we are in office or in house then we need to park vehicle outside or in parking lot. There is prone to theft or hit by other vehicle. The situation of vehicle can’t be track without visiting parking place. So this project is built to track status of vehicle, when somebody try to steal the vehicle or get hit by any others vehicle.
The project built on two boards one is for transmission which named as PARKING VEHICLE MONITOR-TX and other is for receiving which named as PARKING VEHICLE MONITOR-RX. The TX board is used to transmit the status of vehicle and other RX board is used to receive the status of vehicle and display the status on 16×2 LCD display.
Automation applications generally require controlling multiple actuators (like many motors) at the same time. For concurrent and synchronous controlling of many actuators, they need to be controlled and operated independently. Engineers use as many controllers (microcontrollers or ASICs) as the number of actuators needs to be independently operated.
Sequence timer is used in many manufacturing industries to turn ON and turn OFF processes one by one automatically. Sequence timer is at most required when there is chain of processes – means 1st process ends it triggers 2nd process, when 2nd ends it triggers 3rd process and so on (like chain reaction !!!….). The timings and durations of each process has to be set initially. Each process requires specific time duration. The time duration for each process in sequence is set (programmed) before the entire chain process starts. Then the 1st process is triggered. It runs for set duration and when it finishes, 2nd process starts and thus the chain starts. Each process runs for set duration and when it finishes, turns ON next process.
While measuring voltage and current with multi-meter, the probes have to be changed its position carefully. There is a probability of damaging the multi-meter, if voltage is measured in high current mode by mistake. In case, both voltage and current to be measured at a time, we have to use two multi-meters and care should be taken while wiring both the multi-meters. VAT meter is combination of Voltmeter, Ammeter and Thermometer. It can measure voltage and current simultaneously along with the temperature.
Fasted Finger First is an important circuit which is commonly used in quizzes, games and other multi-player activities. In quiz events, the circuit is generally used in Fasted Finger First is an important circuit which is commonly used in quizzes, games and other multi-player activities. In quiz events, the circuit is generally used in rapid fire rounds where it has to be determined that which participant has first responded to the question. It is necessary to use such circuit in a quiz as many times, there is a minor difference between the responses of participants.
This is a project based on Arduino board which can measure the unknown capacitance value. When the capacitor whose value needs to be measured is plugged into the breadboard of the Capacitance meter, the 16*2 LCD displays the capacitance value. The project uses an Arduino pro mini boardwhose ADC feature is used along with the concept of RC charging circuit to develop this Capacitance meter.
There are many devices for visually impaired people. This project is also an attempt to develop an aid for visually impaired persons. This project is a smart stick which is capable of detecting any obstacle, detect water and corners and even allow the user to find the stick if anyhow missed by the user by pressing a remote switch.The device is designed with an intention to sort out common issues faced by the blind people while using traditional sticks. With the electronics embedded within the stick, it became a smart stick with the functionalities mentioned above. The smart stick is built on Arduino Pro Mini. This Arduino board is small enough to install on a regular stick and has buzzer, LDR sensor, Ultrasonic sensor and a water detector sensor interfaced to it.
In the previous tutorial, features, advantages and limitations of TCP/IP Protocol were discussed. Though, TCP/IP is not best suited for IoT applications due to packet overheads, still being the most common protocol stack on internet, it offer ubiquitous connectivity. An IoT device can be made to communicate with a cloud or server using TCP/IP protocol without any hassle of network programming and network administration. In this project, an IoT device will be designed that could transmit sensor data to ThingSpeak Platform using the TCP/IP protocol.
In this modern world we all are aware about USB. We all connect our Pen drives, memory card and other devices using USB. But have you ever thought what is it? Here is the answer; USB is a communication protocol by which two devices communicate with each other. In the same way, microcontroller also communicates with other devices like sensors or PC by using different communication protocols like USB, UART, and I2C.UART stands for Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter. It is a type of serial communication that uses two wires, one for transmission (Tx) and one for reception (Rx).
You may have seen many micro controller based GPS receivers. The main purpose of such GPS receivers is to locate and display device latitude and longitudes (co-ordinates). These GPS receivers are built using micro controller and LCD screen. Most of the receivers display location co-ordinates only. Some may display time and date along with co-ordinates. But only few GPS receives display full information like time, date, location, height, speed, direction, number of satellite in view, validity and accuracy of signal etc. so many details.
In the previous tutorial, a 250 Milli Watt Audio Power Amplifier was designed using LM-386 power amplifier IC. On the basis of application, the audio amplifiers can be categorized into two classes – 1) Pre-Amplifier2) Power Amplifier The pre-amplifiers are used to level up the audio signals from a microphone or audio source to standard voltage levels while the power amplifiers are generally used at the output stage of the audio systems to boost audio signals before they are reproduced by the speakers. In this tutorial, a power amplifier with 1 Watt output power will be designed. The audio amplifier designed in this project will operate in range from 20 Hz to 20 KHz which is the same as of the audible range of frequencies by humans. The amplifier circuit will be designed to have a variable voltage gain in range from 26 dB to 46 dB.
In the previous tutorial, Online UPS was assembled from its basic building blocks like Lead Acid battery Charger, Square Wave Inverter and Modified Sine Wave Inverter. Now in this tutorial, offline UPS will be designed. The Offline UPS is one of the topologies of UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply). In UPS system, the term topology refers to the switching mechanism of the UPS system. Contrary to online UPS, in offline UPS, the load circuit is initially directly powered by the AC mains. On the failure of power supply, the power failure is detected by a switching circuit and the power is provided to the load through the battery and inverter after the power failure has already occurred. So, in the offline UPS, the load experiences the power cutoff once before it receives the power backup from the UPS.
Security is a prime concern in any IoT application development. The data from the IoT devices is passed to the server/cloud where it may be stored temporarily or for long time to generate analytics. The transportation medium through which the data is passed from the IoT device to the cloud must be secured with implementation of various IoT security measures, so that the data could not be hacked by any Man-in-the-Middle attack.
After applying brainwaves to the RGB LEDs, now it is time to check extensions on some more real time applications and determine the efficiency as well as flexibility that can be achieved using this module. I am now planning to use it in some robotic field now. In this article, I am planning to make use of Brain Wave for some health applications along with robotics. While studying about robotic arms, I found that they are controlled by servo motor. What if we can control the servo motor using our Brainwave? I was not sure about this as the results of Brainwave are often random and I wanted to check if we can control the angle by our thoughts. So, to check the accuracy I gave it a try.
Power Supply thermal Management 3.2 Thermoelectric cooler (TEC) Introduction In our previous article, we have seen the selection parameter of the heat sink and cooling fan. In this article, we will discuss Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC). TEC can be used in heating or cooling system in an application where temperature stabilization or cooling below ambient…
A Mouse is a common computer peripheral apart from the keyboard. Even the touchpad is not able to dent the popularity of mouse. Nowadays the keyboards, as well as mouse connect through the computers via USB cable or the fancier one connect to the PCs wirelessly through Bluetooth. This project is an attempt to demonstrate the functioning of a generic USB mouse. The 8-bit USB AVR – Atmega 32u4 is used as the USB device controller in the project. In order to avoid complexity, the project uses AVR based Lightweight USB Framework (LUFA) as the firmware.
The vehicle tracking systems are designed for tracking the movement of a vehicle from a location at any time. Such system is equipped with a GPS receiver which maintains the GPS location of the device. The GPS location of the device traced by the GPS sensor is sent to a cloud server or cloud service with the help of a controller. This project is a simple implementation of such system on one of the most popular prototyping boards – Arduino UNO.
In the previous tutorial, encoder and decoder circuits were built using SN-7400 series logic gate ICs. The multiplexer and demultiplexer are also combinational circuits similar to encoder and decoder. A multiplexer is a circuit that accepts many inputs and channelize digital data to only one output. The combinational circuit of a multiplexer is similar to encoder with only difference that the multiplexer has select inputs that determine from which input the data should be channelized to the output. Like encoder, a multiplexer circuit can be built using AND, NOT and OR gates.
In the previous tutorial – More Combinational Circuits, the basic concepts of encoder, decoder, multiplexer and demultiplexer were discussed. An encoder is used to code digital information according to a pre-defined code system (like BCD, Gray, etc). An encoder inputs data (like from a keypad or keyboard) representing familiar numbers or characters or symbols and output coded binary numbers. So, it inputs the alphabetic characters and decimal numbers from an input device via individual wire lines and produces the outputs as binary coded representation of the input symbols.