Security is a prime concern in any IoT application development. The data from the IoT devices is passed to the server/cloud where it may be stored temporarily or for long time to generate analytics. The transportation medium through which the data is passed from the IoT device to the cloud must be secured with implementation of various IoT security measures, so that the data could not be hacked by any Man-in-the-Middle attack.
After applying brainwaves to the RGB LEDs, now it is time to check extensions on some more real time applications and determine the efficiency as well as flexibility that can be achieved using this module. I am now planning to use it in some robotic field now. In this article, I am planning to make use of Brain Wave for some health applications along with robotics. While studying about robotic arms, I found that they are controlled by servo motor. What if we can control the servo motor using our Brainwave? I was not sure about this as the results of Brainwave are often random and I wanted to check if we can control the angle by our thoughts. So, to check the accuracy I gave it a try.
Power Supply thermal Management 3.2 Thermoelectric cooler (TEC) Introduction In our previous article, we have seen the selection parameter of the heat sink and cooling fan. In this article, we will discuss Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC). TEC can be used in heating or cooling system in an application where temperature stabilization or cooling below ambient…
A Mouse is a common computer peripheral apart from the keyboard. Even the touchpad is not able to dent the popularity of mouse. Nowadays the keyboards, as well as mouse connect through the computers via USB cable or the fancier one connect to the PCs wirelessly through Bluetooth. This project is an attempt to demonstrate the functioning of a generic USB mouse. The 8-bit USB AVR – Atmega 32u4 is used as the USB device controller in the project. In order to avoid complexity, the project uses AVR based Lightweight USB Framework (LUFA) as the firmware.
The vehicle tracking systems are designed for tracking the movement of a vehicle from a location at any time. Such system is equipped with a GPS receiver which maintains the GPS location of the device. The GPS location of the device traced by the GPS sensor is sent to a cloud server or cloud service with the help of a controller. This project is a simple implementation of such system on one of the most popular prototyping boards – Arduino UNO.
In the previous tutorial, encoder and decoder circuits were built using SN-7400 series logic gate ICs. The multiplexer and demultiplexer are also combinational circuits similar to encoder and decoder. A multiplexer is a circuit that accepts many inputs and channelize digital data to only one output. The combinational circuit of a multiplexer is similar to encoder with only difference that the multiplexer has select inputs that determine from which input the data should be channelized to the output. Like encoder, a multiplexer circuit can be built using AND, NOT and OR gates.
In the previous tutorial – More Combinational Circuits, the basic concepts of encoder, decoder, multiplexer and demultiplexer were discussed. An encoder is used to code digital information according to a pre-defined code system (like BCD, Gray, etc). An encoder inputs data (like from a keypad or keyboard) representing familiar numbers or characters or symbols and output coded binary numbers. So, it inputs the alphabetic characters and decimal numbers from an input device via individual wire lines and produces the outputs as binary coded representation of the input symbols.
In the first tutorial of this series – Introduction to Digital Electronics, it was mentioned that there are different code systems that are used to represent digital information as binary numbers. Each code system has different binary numbers assigned to same symbols and characters. The different digital systems may be using different code systems. In such case, there must remain some code conversion circuit to make the interconnected digital systems compatible.
In a previous tutorial – Arithmetic Circuits, digital circuits for performing arithmetic operations were designed. Like Arithmetic operations, comparison of numbers is also an important mathematical operation. From computing perspective, the comparison of numbers plays vital role in decision making and logical operations. In digital systems, the numbers are in the form of binary numbers. The comparison of two numbers determines whether one number is greater than, equal, or less than the other number.
In the previous tutorial, the basic combinational arithmetic circuits like half adder, full adder, half subtractor and full subtractor were discussed in details. Now, in this tutorial, the truth table and derivation of the boolean expressions for all those circuits will be considered. With the derived boolean expressions, all those circuits will be practically designed using digital ICs.
In the previous tutorial, it was mentioned that IMAP protocol is a standard email protocol which is used to store email messages and retrieve them. It was also mentioned that IMAP protocol can be used in IoT applications where commands can be passed to IoT devices by emails. This can be really helpful in certain situations like when security might be the main concern. Also, emails can be sent on any network without any special application or permissions. The IoT devices can receive emails as email clients where they can read emails and process information contained in them.
Nowadays, most of the hotels and restaurants take online orders of food. Many hotels and restaurants either facilitate pre-ordering or even render delivery services in the local areas. In this project, an Hotel Order Management System is designed where a customer can pre-order food items using a mobile app and a Raspberry Pi based Server manages to cater menu items and book orders. On every booking, the customer is acknowledged of the time their order will be ready, so they can arrive at the specified time and pick up their order.
In the previous tutorial, FTP protocol and file transfer over it between a Client and Server was discussed. The FTP protocol can really useful in many IoT applications. Many IOT devices are installed in places like nuclear plant, electrical grids and other industrial setups where these types of devices can get some bugs and need application software updates to fix them. On standard IoT protocols like MQTT, CoAP, etc, it is hard to update and reinstall application software because most of the IoT protocols are designed for IoT communication between devices and network but not for tasks like application updates.
LM317 is commonly used for voltage regulation in DC circuits. The IC is one of the popular adjustable positive voltage regulators that comes with features like over voltage protection, internal current limiting, overload protection, low quiescent current (for more stable output) and safe area compensation (its internal circuitry limit the maximum power dissipation so it does not self-destruct). Apart from many features, less number of components are required to make it operational. So, LM317 regulator is easy to use and assemble in a circuit. In this project, an adjustable power supply using LM317 is designed which inputs main AC supplies (220V-230V AC) and outputs DC voltage below 12V. The LM317 has an adjustable output voltage of 1.28 V to 11 V and draws maximum 1.5 A current.
In this project, a smart socket is designed which can be automatically switched using a relay. The socket is interfaced to a Particle Photon based IoT device which keeps track of energy consumption using ACS 712 Current sensor and help automatically disconnect socket connection with the Mains when the power consumption by a device exceeds a threshold value. The Photon also remains connected to a web server via Wi-Fi hotspot and keeps updating the energy consumption data to the server.
The IoT device designed here is a weather station built by interfacing a character LCD with the ESP8266 board. The device fetches the weather data of the location it is installed and display it on the LCD screen. It must be noted that there are no sensors used in this device and the device gets the weather data from an IoT platform i.e. Open Weather Map. The device fetches temperature and precipitation information using API keys and display it on the LCD.
Medical Electronics is also going to advance with the application of Internet of Things. Internet of Things is the fastest growing technology. IoT is about to find application everywhere and in everything. In this project, a simple patient health monitoring device is developed as an IoT application. This IoT device could read pulse rate and measure surrounding temperature. It continuously monitors the pulse rate and surrounding temperature and updates them to an IoT platform. The IoT platform used in this project is ThingSpeak.
Gardening is a common hobby for nature lovers. The plants need continuous and closely monitored care. Sometimes, this turn into a liability. Like when the care taker of a home garden needs to go out of station for a while, the garden may remain unattended for some time or even long time. The Internet of Things can offer a feasible solution to this. The garden can be modernized with electronic technology that continuously monitors the conditions of plants and soil, so the plants could be provided watering and shade as required. All of this can be controlled and monitored online with the application of IoT.
Internet of Things is the fastest growing technology. Like Information Technology revolutionized every field in the early years of twenty first century, the internet of things is about to forward the same legacy. IoT is about to find application everywhere and in everything. The concept of IoT is so scalable, versatile and ubiquitous. In this project, Internet of Things has been used to built a visitor counter which can be monitored online. Such visitor counter can be part of a home automation system or smart home system.
Home Security Systems are a need of the modern day houses. It is possible to design a simple home security solution by using Raspberry Pi and utilizing the power of Internet of Things. The home security system designed in this project is a simple and easily installable device built using Raspberry Pi 3, Web Cam and PIR Motion Sensor. The Raspberry Pi 3 Model B comes equipped with on-board Bluetooth (BLE) and Wi-Fi (BCM43438 Wireless LAN), so, it can be easily connected with a Wi-Fi Router to access a cloud service.