The frame size of data can be selected by configuring the UCSZ (USART Character Size) bits. The Register UCSRC contains UCSZ [1:0] bits and UCSRB contains UCSZ2 bit. The following table shows the bit settings of UCSZ bits corresponding to different data frame size.
Case1: Frame size 5, 6 and 7 bits:
These three frame sizes can be selected by programming only UCSZ1 and UCSZ0 bits. There is no need to program UCSZ2 bit because default value of this bit is zero.
For example: UCSRC= (1<<UCSEL)|(1<<UCSZ0); // Asynchronous mode, frame size=6 bit,
// No parity, 1 stop bit.
Programming steps of sending and receiving data will remain same as used in 8-bit data transmission and reception. For more information, readers can refer the previous article on serial communication.
Test program for 6-bit reception and transmission:
A test program is written for 6-bit data communication between Microcontroller and PC. In this experiment the input is taken from the user through a keyboard. The corresponding data is sent to microcontroller via PC’s COM port. The microcontroller receives data and returns it again to PC’s COM port. The HyperTerminal is used to configure COM port to make it compatible for this experiment.
The following steps are used to configure COM ports:
1. Set the Baud rate = 9600 bps, data bit=6, Parity=None, Stop bit=1.
2. Tick the check box corresponding to Echo as shown in following picture to observe both transmitting and receiving data.
The following output is received when 1 2 3 4 5 6 A B C D E F G keys are pressed form keyboard.
As shown in above picture, the proper output is received when numeric keys are pressed but when alphabetic keys are pressed some symbol appears. This unexpected output is received because we are working with 6-bit data frame size. If 6-bit data frame is selected, two most significant bits are masked to zero while reading from UDR. The ASCII code of ‘1’ is 0x31 (0011 0001). If the two most significant bits are masked, 11 0001 remain which is also equal to 0x31. The size of ASCII codes for all numeric values is 6-bits so there will no problem in receiving and transmitting numeric values in 6-bit mode. But the ASCII value of ‘A’ is 0x41 (0100 0001). If two most significant bits are masked, 00 0001 remain which is equal to 0x01 so it will print some unusual symbol.
Case2: Frame size 9 bits:
9-bit data communication can be used in multi-processor communication. To select data frame of 9-bits, all UCSZ bits are set to 1(UCSZ [2:0] =7).
UCSRB=(1<<TXEN)|(1<<UCSZ2); // transmission on, UCSZ2 is set
UCSRC=(1<<URSEL)|(1<<UCSZ1)|(1<<UCSZ0);// Asynchronous mode, frame size=6 bit, // No parity, 1 stop bit.
1. 9-bit data transmission:
The 9-bit data has to be stored in buffer before transmitting. Since, data size of the UDR register is 8-bit only hence the ninth bit must be stored in TXB8 bit of the register UCSRB before lower byte is stored in UDR.
void usart_tx(unsigned int serial_data) //function transmission
while(!(UCSRA & (1<<UDRE))); // wait for empty UDR
UCSRB &= ~(1<<TXB8); //Copy 9-bit to TXB8
if(serial_data & 0x100)
UDR=serial_data; // data put in UDR
2. 9-bit data reception:
The ninth bit must be read from RXB8 bit before reading lower byte. Status of FE (Frame Error), DOR (Data Over Run) and PE (Parity Error) must also be checked to verify the data.
unsigned int usart_rx(void) // function for reception
while(!(UCSRA & (1<<RXC))); // wait until reception is complete
if(UCSRA & ((1<<FE)|(1<<DOR)|(1<<PE))) //check FE,DOR and PE bits
UCSRB|=(UCSRB>>1)&0x01; // filter 9-bit
return ((UCSRB<<8)|UDR); // return value