Webcam is a device used to capture images, audio and videos. Webcam are either inbuilt or can be externally attached with the laptop or the computer. The most common application of a webcam is video chat, video recording, image capturing. A webcam generally consist of a lens, an image and sound sensors, electronic circuitry to process the data and send it to PC. A variety of webcams with different features are available in the markets. Depending on the features and quality, the technologies used and the prices vary. However the basic function remains the same. You can see an optical lens to capture the images/videos and a small hole to capture sound. The bottom part of the body consists of a plastic casing which provides support to the webcam and a mechanism to fix the webcam on the top of the laptop.
When the internet computing era was catching pace, it was speculated that people might get distant from their loved ones and will immerse themselves in the computer mania. However, the manner in which internet has brought people close is quite amazing. Now important meetings don’t require one to travel long distances. They can be scheduled through video conferencing, just with a click of the mouse. The medical experts at New York City can directly involve themselves in an operation conducted at Nairobi. Several more applications are there that display tremendous ways in which internet based audio-video solutions have got people all over the world closer to each other. All these things might seem magic to a computer illiterate, but this is something that computer savvy people use every day.
How loud can you shout to make yourself heard at a distance? How large is that distance? A hundred meters, a kilometer, is that it? What if you were to talk to peopleseparated by miles, could you shout that loud and kill your lungs? Or you’d rather whisper into an adjacent ear, and be heard at some other location, no matter the distance, and perhaps irrespective of time? An electronic ear that couldhelp store and transmit your voice and sound at light speeds and even ramp it up if you are too frail? Yes, such is the microphone!But how does a microphone achieve such a feat? How does it follow our rhythmic and unpredictable sounds and change them into electrical signals?Let us find out how by peering into one such device, the dynamic microphone.
Transducers are devices which convert energy from one form to other. A microphone is a transducer which converts sound energy to electrical signals. It works opposite to a speaker. Microphones are available in different shape and sizes. Depending on the application, a microphone may use different technologies to convert sound to electrical signals. Here we are going to discuss about the Electret Condenser Microphone which is widely used in mobile phones, laptops, etc.Electret Condenser Microphone, as the name suggests is a parallel plate capacitor and works on the principle of a variable capacitance. It consists of two plates, one fixed (called the back plate) and the other moveable (called Diaphragm) with a small gap between them.