At times we come across applications or situations wherein we need to generate square waves with the microcontroller. The square wave can be generated by [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]programming a pin which toggles between 0 and 1 with a certain time delay. Alternatively, the inbuilt feature of AVR timers can be used in square wave generation. The advantage of using AVR timers in wave form generation is that the output pin toggles automatically when the timer condition are fulfilled. This article focuses on usage of AVR timer for simple square wave generation. It is better to use CTC mode instead of Normal mode because in CTC mode, frequency can be easily adjusted. ?When the Timer is triggered, register TCNTn counts the value constantly as timer started. Each timer has an OCRn (Output Compare Register), which is continuously compared with TCNTn register. In CTC mode whenever match occurs, OCFn (Output Compare Flag) will set to 1. If continuous wave form generation is required, OCFn must be reset again. Alternatively, if OCIEn (Output Compare interrupt) and Global interrupt flags in SREG are set, OCFn will reset automatically after interrupt execution.