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Electronic Circuit Designing: Multitasking with Circuits (Part 4)

Table of Contents:

  1. Electronic Circuit Designing: Multitasking with Circuits (Part 4)
  2. IR Receiver
  3. Comparator
  4. Monostable
  5. Relay
  6. Indicator
  7. Regulator

Step: 8) Find reusable modules from the circuit diagram  

Whenever we do hardware designing, the first rule is to make it in modules that can be reusable. The modules that we make for this particular project may come useful in another project and hence reduce the development time for that project. Even if a module is in use and at the same time found to be useful in another project, we can build another copy of the same module keeping the circuit design and PCB design same. In short this method can save a lot of time and hard work in the development process.

The modules which I found to be reusable in another projects are marked in the circuit diagram with red colored boxes as shown below.    

reusable modules in the circuit diagram

 Figure: reusable modules in the circuit diagram

The module marked [A] can be called the IR RECEIVER module. Its purpose is to receive the IR rays and produce an output according to their intensity. This module can be used in other IR based projects. The module marked [B] can be called as the COMPARATOR module and can be used for the comparison process in other projects. This module has an output and inverted output. The module marked [C] is called the MONOSTABLE module. This module has two mono stables which can be operated separately. Even though there were two separate mono stable block in the block diagram we have selected this as a one single module due to the fact that a single LM358 IC is used to realize both the blocks. If we make it two different blocks we have to use two LM358 ICs with one of the comparator not used. The module marked [D] is called the RELAY module and it consist of three individually accessible relays. The module [E] is called the indicator module and can be used with indication purpose in all other circuits. The module marked [F] is called the regulator module and is obviously useful in all circuits. We haven’t made the piece of circuit representing the BISTABLE block into a module since we can realize the bi stable module with much simpler circuit than using a CD4017 which is basically a counter. Also there is no point is making the IR INDICATOR circuit with only an LED and a resistor into a separate module. 

We have selected the modules from the circuit not at all based on the block diagram of the project, but based on the reusability and the efficient utilization of the available components.

The reusable modules and their details are listed in the following table:

MODULE ID

MODULE

DETAILS

A

IR RECEIVER

This module can receive the IR rays and produce an analog output equivalent to the intensity of the IR light falling on it.

B

COMPARATOR

This module can perform the voltage comparison and level detection. It has an output and an inverted output as well.

C

MONOSTABLE

This module consists of two separate mono stable circuits each of them can be used individually with different time periods.

D

RELAY

This module consists of three RELAYS and all of them can be used individually.

E

INDICATOR

This module has two LEDs and only one of them will be ON at a time based on the current input voltage; expecting only either logic high or logic low voltage equivalents.

F

REGULATOR

This module can regulate the DC voltage at its output when operating on an unregulated DC voltage input.

Table: modules and details

At the moment we have a good idea of what all modules to be build. Now let me show you how to build and test the modules in the next step.

Step: 9) Build and test the modules individually

In this step we build modules one by one and test them individually. At the moment we should have all the components listed in the BOM with us. Also we need a good collection of tools to perform this step. Let me show you the tools which I’ve used to build the modules.

Circuit making tools

Figure: Tools required.

The tools that you can find the above figure are listed as follows;

{C}       1-      {C}NOSE PLIER

{C}        2-      {C}RULER

{C}        3-      {C}CIGERRATE LIGHTER

{C}         4-      {C}HEAT SHRINK SLEAVE

{C}        5-      {C}STAR SCREW DRIVER

{C}        6-      {C}WIRE STRIPPER CUM CUTTER

{C}        7-      {C}SCREW DRIVER

{C}        8-      {C}SMALL FILE 

{C}        9-      {C}BLADE

{C}       10-  {C} SOLDERING LED

{C}       11-  {C}SOLDERING PASTE

{C}       12-  {C}HACK SAW BLADE

{C}       13-  {C}SCISSORS

{C}       14-  {C}DESOLDERING GUN

{C}        15-  {C}SOLDERING IRON

Let us start with the module A) the IR RECEIVER module which is marked as shown below.