Optocouplers or also known as opto-isolators are the components that use a beam of light for transmission of the signals or data across two parts of an electronic device. They are mainly used to prevent the damage of electronic components by isolating them from the high voltages.
Sometimes signals/data need to be transferred from one subsystem to another within an electronics equipmentwithout making a direct electrical connection between them. Often this is because the source and destination are at very different voltage levels, like a microprocessor which is operating from 5V DC but being used to control a triac which is switching 240V AC. In such situations optocouplers are employed to isolate the connection between the two, to protect the microprocessor from overvoltage damage.
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