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SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP)In the previous tutorial, it was seen how FTP protocol can be used to update application software on an IoT device. However, FTP protocol has some security concerns as it is vulnerable to several kind of attacks like Brute force attack, FTP bounce attack, Packet capture, Port stealing (guessing the next open port and usurping a legitimate connection), Spoofing attack, Username enumeration etc. Therefore, secure variants of FTP protocols were developed. SSH File Transfer Protocol is one of the secure variants of the FTP protocol.  

 

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard protocol for transferring files between a client and server over an internet network. The FTP protocol was written by Abhay Bhushan (IIT Kanpur) in 1971. In 1980, a TCP/IP version of the protocol as RFC 765 was introduced which became the de facto standard worldwide. in 1998, the protocol stack was updated for IPv6 support. Within this protocol, the security features were enabled by a  TLS/SSL layers called FTP Secure (FTPS). A new secured version of FTP is also widely used called SSH File transfer protocol (SFTP). The SFTP is quite different protocol than the traditional FTPS. 

 

MQTT-SN ArchitectureThe Internet of Things have specific network requirements. The traditional TCP/IP protocols usually do not fit to these requirements. That is why there are many protocols designed especially to cater the requirements of IoT applications. Within the IoT domain, sensor networks are one of the applications which are designed using constraint devices and are characterized by limited network bandwidth. A variant of MQTT protocol has been designed for these networks which is called MQTT-SN (MQTT for Sensor Networks).