Everyone must be familiar with the term – Switched Mode Power Supply or SMPS. Yes, they are used in every personal computer. In fact, the Switched Mode Power Supply is widely used with many other devices. Once it is understood that what SMPS actually is, its countless applications can be easily imagined. An SMPS is used for converting the electronic power supply efficiently. Any SMPS has some storage components which store electrical energy to supply to the load device and some switching components which turn on and off at high frequencies charging and discharging the storage components.
The fusion of technology with knowledge creates what the world once assumed as miracles and biotechnology can be considered as a perfect example where the knowledge of biology when blended with technology is making the world a better place by enhancing the quality of life and alleviating the human sufferings. ‘Biotechnology’, the term was coined by a Hungarian engineer, Karl Ereky and is defined as per the UN convention on biological diversity as, “Any technological application that uses biological system or living organisms to make or modify the process or products for specific use.” Biotechnology has touched almost every aspect of human life and has carved its niche too. Biotechnology dealing with medical and health care is termed as Red biotechnology. It is Green biotechnology, when it concerns about agricultural processes and White biotechnology when comes to industrial processes.
Controller Area Network or CAN protocol is a method of communication between various electronic devices like engine management systems, active suspension, ABS, gear control, lighting control, air conditioning, airbags, central locking etc embedded in an automobile.CAN initially developed for in-vehicle networking of automobiles has expanded its applications in various other industries. The application started for luxurious cars is now being used in heavy duty vehicles like trucks, buses, trains and rail vehicles. The unique feature of CAN that allows various electronic units to communicate with each other made it important in healthcare domain. For example intensive care units and operating rooms where time and communication is of utmost importance. Entertainment industry also used CAN protocols to improve features in studios to control lights and door system and to control stage of theatres, event halls etc. Gambling machines and toys are other examples in entertainment field. In the field of science the high energy experiments and astronomical telescope use CAN in embedded network.
We know them as the most popular search engine in the World Wide Web. They are much more than that. They pioneer in inspiring innovation in the field of technology which is beyond their time. The google driverless car is a project by google which involves the development of technology to make a car self-dependent. The software that google use to automate cars is known as the “Google Chauffeur”. They do not produce a separate car but install the required equipment onto a regular car. The project is currently being led by google engineer Sebastian Thurin under the aegis of Google X.
What is USB? UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS What does it do?It connects your laptop or PC to the peripheral devices attached to it.How does it communicate?You attach the device using a cable to PC and communication is initiated within a fraction of seconds. However, what looks easy on our end is a complicated process in the USB system. It may be single step in our stride to attach the device and start working but for the system it’s entirely a different picture. In that fraction of second after the device is attached, it initiates step by step process to make communication possible. It starts right from alerting the PC about the attachment, change in voltages at ports, then addressing the devices, gathering the information, loading the drivers and finally communication. Let’s understand each of these steps in detail to get a crystal clear picture about the working of USB.
Simple analog communication over the telephone wires to the typical USB cables for data exchange, we surely have come a long way in the field of communication. RS232 was the first milestone reached in this journey. It was a standard for electromechanical typewriters and modems for digital data exchange introduced in 1962 by the Radio Sector of EIA. It made the data exchange more reliable over analog channel. The standard defined voltage levels that made it immune to noise disturbances and reduced the error in data exchange.As the technology was growing many electronic devices were being developed during this time like computers, printers, test instrument etc. There came a time where manufacturers felt the need to exchange information between these electronic devices. For example data exchange between a computer and a printer or two computers. But there was no standard or method to accomplish this task. RS232 was the only available standard at the time which was used for data exchange. So, they thought of adopting this standard in electronic devices for digital data exchange.
In the near future if you are if you’re late for work and you don’t have time for breakfast your car will be there for your rescue. You will sit back, relax and enjoy your breakfast while your car safely drives you to your destination. No, this is not a sci-fi movie scene I’m talking about. This is soon going to be a reality!Google has been working on driverless cars since 2009. Automakers are currently working on new technology that will allow the cars to drive themselves. The technology uses a Chauffeur system called LIDAR (light detection and ranging). They’re also modifying the existing technologies such as self-parking and pre-safe systems to make the driving safe.
SPI protocol has earned a solid role in embedded systems whether it is system on chip processors, both with higher end 32-bit processors such as those using ARM, MIC or Power PC and with other microcontrollers such as the AVR, PIC etc. These chips usually include SPI controllers capable of running in either master or slave mode. In-system programmable AVR controllers can be programmed using an SPI interface.Chip or FPGA based designs sometimes use SPI to communicate.So, SPI is a common technology used nowadays for communication with peripheral devices where we want to transfer data speedily and with in real time constraints. There are many serial interfaces right from Morse code telegraphy, RS232, USB, Fire wire, Ethernet and many more. Each serial interface offers advantages or disadvantages for many designs,depending on criteria such as needed data rate, space availability, and noise considerations.
We had all imagined what the future would be like in our childhood, picturing pretty intense technology like flying cars, houses floating in the air, holographic telephones, etc. But we look at the world now and see those ideas actually come to life. One of such devices is Google’s latest project, “Google Glass”. What is Google Glass? What does it promise to do? What are its salient features? We will find out all this and more as we go further.In simple terms, google glass is a computer which you can wear on your head the same way as in you would wear a set of spectacles, which comes with an Optical Head Mounted Display (OHMD) working on a class of technology called “Augmented Reality”.
After the invention of video games, ‘Short Message Service’ is by far the best thing that could have happened to the youth of the world. Short Message Service or lovingly shortened as SMS, has been one of the most significant means of exchanging information in the modern era of thumb twiddling youth. They are fast…
The MP3 format is a compression tool to reduce the size of the song of without noticeably affecting the quality of the sound. Every day hundreds and thousands of MP3 file are shared and downloaded.With this format a 32 mega byte song is compressed to about 3MB which allows fast downloads and storage of hundreds of songs on our computers hard disk. It has changed the traditional ways which people used to find, listen and store music.Do you know if we stretch out all the data stored on a single compact disc in the straight line it would be over 4 miles long. Surprised! Ok let’s do the math to understand better. Music in a CD is sampled at 44,100 times per second. The samples are 2 bytes (16 bits) long.
Life has existed for millions of years before electricity was ever developed. All thanks to the giant Nuclear Fusion reactor at the center of our solar system, ‘The Sun’. The Sun generates energy from its core where Hydrogen atoms fuse to create a Helium atom producing tremendous amounts of energy in the process. This energy is essential to life on earth. The sunlight is used by plants to produce food which is directly or indirectly the food source to all living things; it is responsible for seasons; its heat maintains water in its liquid form which is primary for life to exist; sunlight is an essential source of vitamin D to the human body and many more life supporting processes which are either directly or indirectly choreographed by the sun.
Flexible printed circuit boards are at the forefront of the new wave of electronics found in healthcare, military, and consumer markets.Researchers are continuing to push the limits of possibilities for flexible PCBs, expecting the industry to grow five-fold in the next 10 years.New materials, such as polyimide, allow a thinner, lighter product with the ability to move more freely.Conductive ink printing allows the elimination of connectors and cables, improving connectivity and assembly costs.The traditional process for manufacturing PCBs requires as many as 6 steps. New knowledge has shortened the process of manufacturing flexible PCBs to as little as 3 steps
Andy Rubin, Nick Sears, Rich Miner, and Chris White founded Android Inc. in October 2003. Firstly, Andy Rubin developed Android OS for digital cameras but he realized that the market for digital camera operating systems perhaps was not all that big. In 2005, Android wasbought by Google and Andy Rubin along with other co-founders continued working under new owners. In 29 June 2007,iPhone was released by Apple Inc with iOS, which was the first OS in the mobile market.
The first law of thermodynamics states, “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another”. The first part of this law tells us that there is a fixed amount of energy in the universe whereas, the second part gives a sneak peak into how we can utilize the available energy to alter it into a form which is useful to us. The ideal case would be that the entire portion of the source energy be converted to the form of our choice.
Our theoretical description of space is the entire observable universe which extends to 13.8 Billion Lightyears (because the universe is 13.8 Billion Years old) through whichever direction we look at it (and is the same from any point of observation in the universe, since the universe is infinite). But, how much have we explored? The furthest distance reached by a machine, the voyager I, is the outskirts of our solar which is a few light hours from earth which it took 35 years to sail in empty space going at an astonishing speed of 1100 Km/sec. Humans, on the other hand have not gone further than the moon (360,000 km away from earth) and are soon planning a trip to mars.
A device which controls the current flowing into the channel on application of low-power electrical signal is called a transistor. Roughly, transistors can be classified as Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) and Field Effect Transistors (FETs). In BJTs, a small amount of current is used to control the current flowing into the channel and hence BJTs are also known as current controlled devices. In FETs, a small voltage is used to control the current flowing and hence called as voltage controlled devices. This article briefs about the various types of FETs with a comparison chart. Let’s get started.
Now that we have discussed all the basics of the Brain wave along with the introduction of Brain wave sensor, it’s time to move onto the subsequent topics. In this article, we will see how the Brain wave chip works, what should be the expected algorithm inside the sensor and what should we do to make such a sensor on our own with any micro controller or processor.
Gone are the days when huge computers made of vacuum tubes sat humming in entire dedicated rooms and could do about 360 multiplications of 10 digit numbers in a second. Though they were heralded as the fastest computing machines of that time, they surely don’t stand a chance when compared to the modern day machines.Since the invention of the first IC in the form of a Flip Flop by Jack Kilby in 1958, our ability to pack more and more transistors onto a single chip has doubled roughly every 18 months, in accordance with the Moore’s Law. The development of microelectronics spans a time which is even lesser than the average life expectancy of a human, and yet it has seen as many as four generations.
The electromagnetic radio spectrum is a natural resource which is licensed and allocated by the government for the use of transmitters and receivers. A spectrum is a collection of wavelengths of radio frequency waves which are available for wireless communication services. These wavelengths are broken down and brackets of these (called ‘Bands’) are allocated for various purposes such as GSM/HSPA, 3G, 4G, TV, Wi-Fi, defense communication, radio broadcasting, mobile satellites, aeronautical satellites, etc. The electromagnetic spectrum is a resource which cannot be depleted but can be over crowded in some bands more than the others due to this static allocation.