In recent decades, the increase in demand for low power solutions required the development of new algorithms and clever techniques, which could save energy and guarantee a long-lasting shelf life of a standalone solution powered by batteries. Three key parameters and components of a general electronic solution are the semiconductor, software, and power for operation.…
Raspberry Pi is a credit-card-sized single-board computer developed by Raspberry Pi Foundation. It was developed as a low-cost microcomputer to impart computer skills to school children. It comes without any power supply or peripherals, and it is supposed to be programmed in Python — the reason for the ‘Pi’ in its name. Raspberry Pi (RPi)…
Electronic home appliances with multimedia capability are meant to simplify our lives. A smart home is incomplete without an intelligent or smart refrigerator module that can help you with grocery shopping and dinner ideas, keep track of what you have in your fridge, and serve as a message center for the entire family. We are…
Consumer electronics manufacturer from South Korea, LG is anticipating a Rs 2,000-crore business below its business-to-business (B2B) segment this year while maintaining a 30 percent year-on-year growth, a company official stated. LG Electronics India’s B2B sector, which has been reinstated as Business Solutions, now contributes approximately 10 percent to the company’s total profit. The Business…
Electric Vehicle (EV) is clearly the future of the automotive industry, given the increasing need for reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In the wake of a global call to make the planet greener, one of EV’s greatest advantages is a quiet motor, which gives off an average of 100% torque at zero RPM.…
The mandate of engineers today has gone much beyond simply creating, designing and building tools and systems to bringing solutions to problems and transforming the environment for betterment of whole community, nature and human groups. They have a big role to in the deep transformation of human activities impacting social, economic and working environment.
Andy Rubin, Nick Sears, Rich Miner, and Chris White founded Android Inc. in October 2003. Firstly, Andy Rubin developed Android OS for digital cameras but he realized that the market for digital camera operating systems perhaps was not all that big. In 2005, Android wasbought by Google and Andy Rubin along with other co-founders continued working under new owners. In 29 June 2007,iPhone was released by Apple Inc with iOS, which was the first OS in the mobile market.
Altered Reality is the future of human-computer interaction as well of the human-reality interaction. Virtual reality, Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality are the terms often cited in context of the emerging interactive technologies particularly in the mobile domain. Of all these forms, augmented reality and mixed reality are considered altered realities. While mixed reality is relatively a new concept, Augmented Reality has been through many developments, applications and successful commercial ventures.
Handheld devices like a cell phone, palmtop and laptop were rapidly becoming an integral part of our daily lives. In most cases, these devices do not have compatible data communication interfaces, or, if they do, the interface requires cumbersome cable connections and configuration procedures. Isn’t it absolutely fantastic to connect your PC to share music, data and calendar info without using any wires? Or to wirelessly access phone numbers on your PDA from your cell phone.
A quadcopter is a four rotor unmanned aerial drone that operates with the same principle as of a helicopter with slight differences lying within both. It is used for several purposes in the military as well as social fields operating over a wide range of applications.It has become a craze for building a quadcopter among people as it gives a wide variety of benefits as compared to the traditional helicopter such as stability and control. Till date quadcopter has only been used as a drone that is controlled from a distant place.
Sheet lamination is one of the seven recognized 3D Printing methods. The process uses sheets of building material which are cut through laser or knife and the sheets are joined one after the other either by using an adhesive or by wielding the laser cut sheets together to form the 3D object. The process is also called ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) in case the building material used is metal sheets.The apparatus for UAM variation of the sheet lamination process has a cylindrical sonotrode to which the material sheet is coiled. The sonotrode is rotated to feed the material sheet onto a building platform.
Material Jetting is one of the standard 3D printing technology that has scope and design pattern suitable for the desktop version of 3D printers as industrial 3D printers. The technology fabricates a 3D part just like an inkjet printer prints a two-dimensional image. The 3D model is built on a target surface to which droplets or continuous fluids of the building material are dropped layer by layer and each layer is then cured with ultraviolet radiation to get it solidified. The term “Drop on Demand” is used for referring the drop by drop wise fabrication of 3D model in the technology’s context. A typical apparatus for material jetting 3D printing has printer head consisting of two nozzles and an UV source.
Directed Energy Deposition (DED) is a 3D printing technology specifically used to create 3D models from metals and alloys. The technique can be applied for making 3D parts or objects from polymers, glass or ceramics but is not popular for that. This technique is quite commonly used for repair of existing 3D models built using metal or alloy.Many times the technique is used for adding extensions to existing metallic models. The typical apparatus for Directed Energy Deposition 3D Printing consist of a head for material wire supply which can move along multiple axis and an electron beam projector or high power laser beam projector which melts the fed wire through directing the high power radiation.
The Powder Bed Fusion is another powder based 3D printing technique. Unlike the binder jet 3D printing that uses a binder liquid to glue together building material’s particles, in powder bed fusion techniques, the particles of building material for 3D part are fused together by the application of heat or electron beam.All the PBF techniques are similar in operation except that the method of fusing the powder material differs in them. In Selective Laser Sintering, a laser head is used to project high power laser beam on the powder material to melt the particles and fuse them together.
Binder jetting is one of the seven recognized standard 3D Printing processes. The technique is copyrighted by the name 3DP technology. It was developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1993. Later on, the license of the technology was obtained by Z Corporation in 1995.This is a powder based 3D printing technique and uses a powder like building material to be joined by liquid binder for 3D printing. In a typical apparatus for binder jetting, there are two chambers where one chamber is filled with powdered building material to feed into the other chamber and the second chamber is used for realizing the 3D model. The 3D model is built by gluing together the powdered building material using the liquid binder.
Vat Photo polymerisation is another popular 3D printing process. The process is based on hardening of photopolymers on exposure to the ultraviolet radiation. The photopolymer is in the form of a liquid resin filled inside a Vat, that is why, it got the name Vat Photo polymerisation.Stereolithography was invented in 1986 by Charles Hull at the time when he founded his company 3D Systems. For Stereolithography a Vat is filled with the liquid photopolymer resin. The 3D model is built on a platform which dips into the resin to a depth of a single layer. The height of a single layer is usually 0.05 mm to 0.15 mm. An ultraviolet light source which direct the radiation onto resin by reflection from motor controlled mirrors is mounted at the top of the apparatus.
There is not one way, 3D printing can be carried out. Currently there are seven standard manufacturing processes recognized by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). All of these processes are additive in nature and differ only in the way layers are laid out. Efforts are on to innovate new processes other than the additive types but currently only additive manufacturing processes are applicable to 3D printing. Let’s see how Material Extrusion process implements 3D printing.Being an extrusion process, FDM involves a hot end and a cold end. The hot end is an extrusion head to which the fabrication material is supplied by unwinding plastic filament or metal wire off a coil.
3D Printing can be a household thing in near future. No doubt, you might have heard about 3D Printing more often nowadays. The technology is deemed to be a catalyst for another industrial revolution. The days when 3D printing will be used for mass productions in manufacturing sector may not be far. 3D Printing, which has been in the industry since the late 1980s, earlier more popular by the term Additive Printing, is bound to leap beyond modelling and prototyping application.
In this series, every possible detail about the USB system including its architecture, protocols, requests and descriptors as well as signaling and encoding has been already discussed. Wrapping up the series, selection of the controller chip for the development of a USB enabled device is discussed here.
Now that we have discussed the basic details of USB including its features, architecture, and protocol, the next topic in the series is USB Descriptors. In context to USB interface, Descriptors are formatted blocks of information, through which, the host device learns about the peripheral. It helps in identifying and configuring the peripheral device.A Descriptor contains information like type of the device, Vendor ID, Compliant USB Version, number of configurations device supports, number of endpoints, etc. The USB peripheral must respond with descriptors when requested by the host. During enumeration, the host uses control transfer to request the device for descriptors.