Andy Rubin, Nick Sears, Rich Miner, and Chris White founded Android Inc. in October 2003. Firstly, Andy Rubin developed Android OS for digital cameras but he realized that the market for digital camera operating systems perhaps was not all that big. In 2005, Android wasbought by Google and Andy Rubin along with other co-founders continued working under new owners. In 29 June 2007,iPhone was released by Apple Inc with iOS, which was the first OS in the mobile market.
The first law of thermodynamics states, “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another”. The first part of this law tells us that there is a fixed amount of energy in the universe whereas, the second part gives a sneak peak into how we can utilize the available energy to alter it into a form which is useful to us. The ideal case would be that the entire portion of the source energy be converted to the form of our choice.
Our theoretical description of space is the entire observable universe which extends to 13.8 Billion Lightyears (because the universe is 13.8 Billion Years old) through whichever direction we look at it (and is the same from any point of observation in the universe, since the universe is infinite). But, how much have we explored? The furthest distance reached by a machine, the voyager I, is the outskirts of our solar which is a few light hours from earth which it took 35 years to sail in empty space going at an astonishing speed of 1100 Km/sec. Humans, on the other hand have not gone further than the moon (360,000 km away from earth) and are soon planning a trip to mars.
A device which controls the current flowing into the channel on application of low-power electrical signal is called a transistor. Roughly, transistors can be classified as Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) and Field Effect Transistors (FETs). In BJTs, a small amount of current is used to control the current flowing into the channel and hence BJTs are also known as current controlled devices. In FETs, a small voltage is used to control the current flowing and hence called as voltage controlled devices. This article briefs about the various types of FETs with a comparison chart. Let’s get started.
Now that we have discussed all the basics of the Brain wave along with the introduction of Brain wave sensor, it’s time to move onto the subsequent topics. In this article, we will see how the Brain wave chip works, what should be the expected algorithm inside the sensor and what should we do to make such a sensor on our own with any micro controller or processor.
Gone are the days when huge computers made of vacuum tubes sat humming in entire dedicated rooms and could do about 360 multiplications of 10 digit numbers in a second. Though they were heralded as the fastest computing machines of that time, they surely don’t stand a chance when compared to the modern day machines.Since the invention of the first IC in the form of a Flip Flop by Jack Kilby in 1958, our ability to pack more and more transistors onto a single chip has doubled roughly every 18 months, in accordance with the Moore’s Law. The development of microelectronics spans a time which is even lesser than the average life expectancy of a human, and yet it has seen as many as four generations.
The electromagnetic radio spectrum is a natural resource which is licensed and allocated by the government for the use of transmitters and receivers. A spectrum is a collection of wavelengths of radio frequency waves which are available for wireless communication services. These wavelengths are broken down and brackets of these (called ‘Bands’) are allocated for various purposes such as GSM/HSPA, 3G, 4G, TV, Wi-Fi, defense communication, radio broadcasting, mobile satellites, aeronautical satellites, etc. The electromagnetic spectrum is a resource which cannot be depleted but can be over crowded in some bands more than the others due to this static allocation.
Field emission display (FED) is a type of Flat Panel Display which is thinner, brighter, energy-efficient and cheaper display than liquid crystal display (LCD). FED also named as Nano Emissive Display (NED) consist of millions of accelerated electrons charged by very less voltage, compared with high voltage for large-screen, HD LCDs. These electron emitters are controlled by cold cathodes to generate colored light and are emitted towards phosphor plate and this phenomenon creates moving images. FED has a wide viewing angle and provides brightest color among plasma and other latest displays.
In recent decades, the increase in demand for low power solutions required the development of new algorithms and clever techniques, which could save energy and guarantee a long-lasting shelf life of a standalone solution powered by batteries. Three key parameters and components of a general electronic solution are the semiconductor, software, and power for operation.…
The economic success of a nation depends prominently on its evolution in communication and transportation. Communication is steadily growing its speed, while the same cannot be matched by transportation. There are currently 5 modes of transportation; road, rail, air and sea. Out of these road and sea are quite slow, air is fast but expensive and rail is not as fast as it needs to be. Therefore there is a need to bridge the technological as well as an economical gap between a cheap mode of transportation (say, land) and a fast mode of transportation (like air).
Raspberry Pi is a credit-card sized, single-board computer developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation, a UK-based charity that works to ensure global access of computing and digital technology. It was initially developed as a low-cost microcomputer to impart digital skills to kids. It comes without any power supply or peripherals as it’s meant to be programmed…
Electronic home appliances with multimedia capability are meant to simplify our lives. A smart home is incomplete without an intelligent or smart refrigerator module that can help you with grocery shopping and dinner ideas, keep track of what you have in your fridge, and serve as a message center for the entire family. We are…
Consumer electronics manufacturer from South Korea, LG is anticipating a Rs 2,000-crore business below its business-to-business (B2B) segment this year while maintaining a 30 percent year-on-year growth, a company official stated. LG Electronics India’s B2B sector, which has been reinstated as Business Solutions, now contributes approximately 10 percent to the company’s total profit. The Business…
Electric Vehicle (EV) is clearly the future of the automotive industry, given the increasing need for reducing CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. In the wake of a global call to make the planet greener, one of EV’s greatest advantages is a quiet motor, which gives off an average of 100% torque at zero RPM.…
The mandate of engineers today has gone much beyond simply creating, designing and building tools and systems to bringing solutions to problems and transforming the environment for betterment of whole community, nature and human groups. They have a big role to in the deep transformation of human activities impacting social, economic and working environment.
Altered Reality is the future of human-computer interaction as well of the human-reality interaction. Virtual reality, Augmented Reality and Mixed Reality are the terms often cited in context of the emerging interactive technologies particularly in the mobile domain. Of all these forms, augmented reality and mixed reality are considered altered realities. While mixed reality is relatively a new concept, Augmented Reality has been through many developments, applications and successful commercial ventures.
The Powder Bed Fusion is another powder based 3D printing technique. Unlike the binder jet 3D printing that uses a binder liquid to glue together building material’s particles, in powder bed fusion techniques, the particles of building material for 3D part are fused together by the application of heat or electron beam.All the PBF techniques are similar in operation except that the method of fusing the powder material differs in them. In Selective Laser Sintering, a laser head is used to project high power laser beam on the powder material to melt the particles and fuse them together.
Binder jetting is one of the seven recognized standard 3D Printing processes. The technique is copyrighted by the name 3DP technology. It was developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1993. Later on, the license of the technology was obtained by Z Corporation in 1995.This is a powder based 3D printing technique and uses a powder like building material to be joined by liquid binder for 3D printing. In a typical apparatus for binder jetting, there are two chambers where one chamber is filled with powdered building material to feed into the other chamber and the second chamber is used for realizing the 3D model. The 3D model is built by gluing together the powdered building material using the liquid binder.
In this series, every possible detail about the USB system including its architecture, protocols, requests and descriptors as well as signaling and encoding has been already discussed. Wrapping up the series, selection of the controller chip for the development of a USB enabled device is discussed here.
Now that we have discussed the basic details of USB including its features, architecture, and protocol, the next topic in the series is USB Descriptors. In context to USB interface, Descriptors are formatted blocks of information, through which, the host device learns about the peripheral. It helps in identifying and configuring the peripheral device.A Descriptor contains information like type of the device, Vendor ID, Compliant USB Version, number of configurations device supports, number of endpoints, etc. The USB peripheral must respond with descriptors when requested by the host. During enumeration, the host uses control transfer to request the device for descriptors.