One of the major problems that is to be solved in an electronic circuit design is the production of low voltage DC power supply from AC to power the circuit. The conventional method is the use of a step-down transformer to reduce the 230 V AC to a desired level of low voltage AC. The most suitable and low cost method is the use of aVoltage Dropping Capacitor in series with the phase line.
Fig. 1: Image of a Capacitor
Fig. 4: Table showing Characteristics of General Purpose Rectifier Diodes
Fig. 5: Image of Diode
LED Indicator and Diagram
Fig. 6: Table showing forward voltage drops of various LEDs
Fig. 7: Table showing ready reckoner for selecting limiting resistor for various versions of LEDs at different voltages.