CD 4001 is a quad, 2 input NOR gate IC made by Fairchild Semiconductors. It is a monolithic CMOS transistor based IC having efficient source and sink [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]capabilities. Circuits that use this IC can be easily operated using battery as CD4001 is a low power consumption IC. A 14 pin DIP package, this IC can work at temperatures upto 1250. The circuit in this project is built around a commonly used CD4001 IC and few more discrete components. The circuit described can be used to decorate your Christmas tree with colorful lights. The blinking of LED’s will create a festive appearance which will enhance the Christmas mood. This lighting system can also work as night light or can work as an accessory for internal decoration purposes. This circuit doesn’t draw much of power and can be powered using a battery or an AC source with an adapter.
The circuit uses the CMOS dual D type flip flop CD4013 which contains two positive-edge triggered flip flop to toggle a load connected through a relay. Now [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]with the help of a switch you can on the device once pressing it and off the device again using the same switch. In CD4013 each module is further equipped with a group of pin outs assigned as data, set, reset, clock input and a couple complementary output Q and Q(not) . As we know it has couple of output that change or toggle state as response to trigger applied to input terminals. In this circuit, one is wired in toggle mode while other is not used. Using this circuit we can easily control AC and DC appliances remotely through inexpensive low voltage cable and a standard push to on switch. This circuit can easily support a cable length of 25 meters.
By the time you are reading this article, certainly you are already using a web browser which is presenting this article content in a rich text/graphical format on your computer screen. A web browser or frequently called as browser is an application software that is installed on a computer to provide access to the World Wide Web. I t fetches the web pages from the server along with the necessary files like, images, flashes, videos etc, interprets them and then displays it on the screen. All you have to do is simply type the URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of a webpage in the address bar and the browser will bring the web page on your screen.
This article discusses about a simple circuit that can reproduce the sound signals captured through a microphone on a loudspeaker. The microphone is a device which is used to capture sound signals and forms an essential part of most of the electronic gadgets. The microphone converts the sound signals in the environment to their corresponding electrical signals.
This article discusses how to design a simplest active bass separator circuit with design details. This is basically a low pass circuit which is used to separate out low frequency sounds from audio signals at audio play back devices. A simple loudspeaker is not capable of reproducing all the frequencies of the audible range. Different kinds of loudspeaker are available which can reproduce the sound at certain range of frequencies. The bass separator circuit alone is realized with the help of commonly available op-amp ICs. For demonstrating the working a bass beat is played in a mobile phone which is captured, amplified and mixed with a high frequency musical signal and is then again separated out using the bass separator circuit and reproduced in a loudspeaker. Read more to find out how the circuit is assembled and how it is tested and used.
The amplifiers are devices which produces an output signal which is several times higher in amplitude than the input signals. The ratio of the amplitude of the output signal from an amplifier circuit to the amplitude of the input signal is called Gain. The amplifier circuits are normally designed for a fixed amount of gain. There are amplifiers with very low gain, like the amplifiers at the loudspeaker side of an audio device and also there are amplifiers with very high gain, like the amplifiers in the radio receivers or amplifiers at the microphone side of an audio device. The Automatic Gain Control (AGC) amplifiers are another category of amplifiers which can vary its gain according to the input signal level. They provide enough amplification for the weak signals and prevent strong signals from getting over amplified.
A person’s inquisitiveness and curiosity can do wonders. It can open a realm of ideas and imaginations never thought before and create something worthwhile. When I was a child I used to read lot of electronic articles and magazines regularly. I’ve seen a lot of interesting circuits and tried as many of them as possible at that time. Whenever a new circuit catches my attention I can’t resist myself trying it out.
Up to this point, we were developing the basic functions into specific functional blocks according to their requirements. Let’s take a look at what all functional blocks we have, it will give you an idea how far we advanced in the designing processEach of the blocks shown above can perform their own specified functions only. The entire blocks should perform together to give us a collective output. It will happen only when we connect the blocks together in the proper way. Next we are going to discuss how to connect these blocks together so that we have a complete block diagram for the device. From the entire discussion so far you might already have a picture about the way of connecting these blocks together. The IR light from the TV remote triggers the working of the device and who receives the IR light pulses from the TV remote, the IR photodiode.
Step: 5) Design circuit for each functional block In this step we will be designing the circuit for individual blocks. The circuits required are simple and very basic circuit known to all; hence it won’t be such a big task. We are not designing anything new, but modifying the well-known basic circuits to suit our…
Step: 8) Find reusable modules from the circuit diagram Whenever we do hardware designing, the first rule is to make it in modules that can be reusable. The modules that we make for this particular project may come useful in another project and hence reduce the development time for that project. Even if a…
Step: 10) Assemble the modules and test the assembled unit We have built the reusable modules and we have a good idea from the circuit diagram about how their pins should be connected together. At this point we don’t have to worry about the internal circuits of the module and all we need to take…
The switch ‘SW’ is connected for testing in such a way that it can close and open the contact with the ground and PIN C of the BOARD_A. The PIN B should be connected with the PIN D so that the INDICATOR module can get positive voltage. Suppose when the power is applied and the…
You may know how to drive or you are just like me who always tag along as side kick, but there is one part of automobile that is voluntary known to each one of us “Speedometer”. You may not be driving but one step on accelerator by the driver and you are squirming on your seat just as the needle on the meter. Ha!We have never really thought how does a needle move on the meter? What makes the number change on odometer? We look at speedometer but never really notice it. But not anymore join me in this insight to learn all about speedometer. Let’s understand in depth all about it.
The decorative Light Fountains are readily available in market as gift articles. Here the given project demonstrates how to operate it using TV remote (or any other remote of AC or Music System etc.)To make it Remote Operated it needs to be modified, inside its Internal Circuits and there is also a need to build one Simple Circuit using IR Sensor to sense IR Remote Signal. For your convenience kindly follow step by step process of how to do this with the help of given images.
Today Torrent are the most common word used across whenever there is a talk about downloading a movie, TV program series or any big file like software etc. [[wysiwyg_imageupload:8324:]]A torrent file is nothing but a file that consists of the address and information about file of interest. So, what is torrent, how torrent became famous, how they increase the speed of downloading without affecting the bandwidth and how it is different from the traditional downloading?Now, it’s time to see how the software is fetching the data. The torrent file works on the method of peer to peer sharing downloading method i.e. file is downloaded in different pieces according to their availability. There are different terms that are being used by the torrent and you will come across such as seed, leeching, nodes, peers, swarm etc. To understand this downloading scheme, let’s go through the steps.
Ultrasonic sensors are devices that use electrical–mechanical energy transformation to measure distance from the sensor to the target object. Ultrasonic waves are longitudinal mechanical waves which travel as a sequence of compressions and rarefactions along the direction of wave propagation through the medium. Apart from distance measurement, they are also used in ultrasonic material testing (to detect cracks, air bubbles, and other flaws in the products), Object detection, position detection, ultrasonic mouse, etc.These sensors are categorized in two types according to their working phenomenon – piezoelectric sensors and electrostatic sensors. Here we are discussing the ultrasonic sensor using the piezoelectric principle. Piezoelectric ultrasonic sensors use a piezoelectric material to generate the ultrasonic waves.
Webcam is a device used to capture images, audio and videos. Webcam are either inbuilt or can be externally attached with the laptop or the computer. The most common application of a webcam is video chat, video recording, image capturing. A webcam generally consist of a lens, an image and sound sensors, electronic circuitry to process the data and send it to PC. A variety of webcams with different features are available in the markets. Depending on the features and quality, the technologies used and the prices vary. However the basic function remains the same. You can see an optical lens to capture the images/videos and a small hole to capture sound. The bottom part of the body consists of a plastic casing which provides support to the webcam and a mechanism to fix the webcam on the top of the laptop.
While working on electronics and searching many tools and modules to work on , we have always been looking for some wireless module which can perform few operations on its own and do not need any extra micro controller for that . Have you had the same thought ? While searching for latest RF technologies ,we got to heard about the NRF24LE1 modules . After working on it at EG Labs , we found that it is a very interesting module and every electronics hobbyist must give it a try once in their electronics projects.NRF24LE1 is a 14 pin module, manufactured by Nordic Semiconductors Ltd. The main thing which left us awestruck is that the module has inbuilt 8051 based Microcontroller . This means we can code this module as per our need .
Operating Systems have developed a lot in last 15 years. Starting from black and white phones to recent smart phones or mini computers, mobile OS has come far away. Especially for smart phones, Mobile OS has greatly evolved from Palm OS in 1996 to Windows pocket PC in 2000 then to Blackberry OS and Android. Android is a powerful Operating System supporting a large number of applications in Smart Phones. Android is a software bunch comprising not only operating system but also middleware and key applications. Android Inc was founded in Palo Alto of California, U.S. by Andy Rubin, Rich miner, Nick sears and Chris White in 2003. Later Android Inc. was acquired by Google in 2005.
Everyone must be familiar with the term – Switched Mode Power Supply or SMPS. Yes, they are used in every personal computer. In fact, the Switched Mode Power Supply is widely used with many other devices. Once it is understood that what SMPS actually is, its countless applications can be easily imagined. An SMPS is used for converting the electronic power supply efficiently. Any SMPS has some storage components which store electrical energy to supply to the load device and some switching components which turn on and off at high frequencies charging and discharging the storage components.