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Water level controller cum indicator circuit diagram

Summary

By: 
Anjali Sethiya
The use of water level controller cum indicator is common nowadays. This circuit is built using timer NE555, inverter buffer CMOS IC CD4049 and ULN2003. The components used here have low cost, are  easy to build and install on the overhead tank so as to prevent wastage of water. This circuit of this project is simple, economical and versatile. It is used to switch on the motor pump when the level of water falls below the lowest level and turns off the motor when the tank is full.   

This water level indicator project has a very simple circuit consisting of 3 probes which are used for automatic fill and cut of the water supply in tank. These are GROUND, HIGH and LOW. The GROUND probe is used for the reference.

 

When the circuit is powered up for the first time the pump should be started automatically if the vessel is empty (or the level is below the required minimum level). As the HIGH level of the probe is reached, the pump must STOP. If the tank/container is already FULL then nothing should happen.

Description

 

As the water level touches the HIGH level probe, the pump must stop and should not start until the level of water reaches the low level probe. The circuit requires working at 12V battery or 230V AC mains using a 12V adaptor.

 
All the sensors used in water tank are built up from non- corrosive metal. They are fitted on the OHT and then connected to the circuit at appropriate terminals. At the bottom of the tank there is power supply terminal Vcc. Just above the bottom of the tank there is a sensor terminal L and at the highest point i.e. at the top of the tank there is a sensor terminal H. After the proper installation of the sensors and connection with the power supply, the circuit becomes ready for the use.
 
When the water level falls below the level of sensor L, the timer IC2 gets triggered at pin2 through inverters N1 and N2 and the output of IC2 goes HIGH. As the output goes high, the relay gets energized and the motor starts filling water in the tank. The motor remains ON even though the water level crosses sensor L.
 
 As the water in the tank touches the sensor H, the timer IC2 gets retriggered at pin6 through inverters N3 and N4 due to this the output of IC2 goes LOW. The relay gets de-energized and the motor gets turned OFF. The motor remains OFF even though the water level goes below the sensor H. The motor again gets restarted only when the water level fall below sensor L. This cycle repeats every time. This process can also be handled manually by using the switch S1.
 
 This water level indicator circuit is configured around a well known CMOS input- compatible 7-channel IC ULN2003. As soon as the water level rises, water comes in contact with the probe P1 via P3 thereby making pins 7, 2 and 1 HIGH is sequential manner. As a result the corresponding pins 10, 15 and 16 goes LOW is the sequence and the LEDs 1 and 3 lights up in sequence. When the water comes in contact with the last probe i.e. the top most, the piezo buzzer starts sounding which is connected to pin 16 along with the LED.

 

Circuit Diagram

Components

Resistor Image
Resistor

Resistor is a passive component used to control current in a circuit. Its resistance is given by the ratio of voltage applied across its terminals to the current passing through it. Thus a particular value of resistor, for fixed voltage, limits the current through it. They are omnipresent in electronic circuits.

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Capacitor image
Capacitor

 

 

Capacitor is a passive component used to store charge. The charge (q) stored in a capacitor is the product of its capacitance (C) value and the voltage (V) applied to it. Capacitors offer infinite reactance to zero frequency so they are used for blocking DC components or bypassing the AC signals. The capacitor undergoes through a recursive cycl...

SL100 Transistor | SL100
Transistor SL100
SL100 is a general purpose, medium power NPN transistor. It is mostly used as switch in common emitter configuration....
Piezo Buzzer
Piezo Buzzer
 
The piezo buzzer produces sound based on reverse of the piezoelectric effect. The generation of pressure variation or strain by the application of electric potential across a piezoelectric material is the underlying...
Relay Switch Image
Relay Switch

Relay is an electromagnetic device which is used to isolate two circuits electrically and connect them magnetically. They are very useful devices and allow one circuit to switch another one while they are completely separate....

555 Timer | IC 555 | NE555
555 Timer IC

555 is a very commonly used IC for generating accurate timing pulses. It is an 8pin timer IC and has mainly two modes of operation: monostable and astable. In monostable mode time delay of the pulses can be precisely controlled by an external resistor and a capacitor whereas in astable mode the frequency & duty cycle are controlled by two external resistors and a...

ULN2003, ULN2003A Current Driver IC Image
ULN2003
 
ULN2003 is a high voltage and high current Darlington array IC. It contains seven open collector...

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