Renesas Electronics Corporation, a premier supplier of advanced semiconductor solutions, has expanded its popular ZMOD4510 Outdoor Air-Quality (OAQ) Gas Sensor platform with an IP67-qualified waterproof package and a new AI-based algorithm, which enables ultra-low power selective ozone measurements. The enhanced ZMOD4510 is the industry’s first fully calibrated, miniature digital OAQ sensor solution with selective ozone…
Samsung Electronics, a provider of advanced semiconductor technology, has introduced the industry’s first 0.64-micrometer (μm)-pixel image sensor, the 50-megapixel (Mp) Samsung ISOCELL JN1. Equipped with the latest pixel technologies — such as enhanced ISOCELL 2.0, Smart-ISO, and Double Super PDAF — the JN1 can capture more vivid images on the industry’s smallest 50Mp mobile sensor.…
On 28th March 1979, at Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in USA, part of the core melted in the # 2 reactor. The TMI-2 reactor was destroyed. The cause of the accident was the little malfunction in the secondary cooling circuit which allowed temperature in the primary coolant to rise. This caused the reactor to shut down automatically. This situation developed because the level controls turned off the coolant to the reactor when they detected presence of cooling water near the top of the tank. The water at the top was not because of the tank got completely filled, it was because the water was too little in the tank that it got boiled and swelled up to the top of the tank.
Bats are wonderful creatures. Blind from the eyes and yet a vision so precise that could distinguish between a moth and a broken leaf even when flying at full speed. No doubt the vision is sharper than ours and is much beyond human capabilities of seeing, but is certainly not beyond our understanding. Ultrasonic ranging is the technique used by bats and many other creatures of the animal kingdom for navigational purposes.Ultrasonic sensors are devices that use electrical–mechanical energy transformation, the mechanical energy being in the form of ultrasonic waves, to measure distance from the sensor to the target object.Ultrasonic waves are longitudinal mechanical waves which travel as a succession of compressions and rarefactions along the direction of wave propagation through the medium.
Ultrasonic sensors are devices that use electrical–mechanical energy transformation to measure distance from the sensor to the target object. Ultrasonic waves are longitudinal mechanical waves which travel as a sequence of compressions and rarefactions along the direction of wave propagation through the medium. Apart from distance measurement, they are also used in ultrasonic material testing (to detect cracks, air bubbles, and other flaws in the products), Object detection, position detection, ultrasonic mouse, etc.These sensors are categorized in two types according to their working phenomenon – piezoelectric sensors and electrostatic sensors. Here we are discussing the ultrasonic sensor using the piezoelectric principle. Piezoelectric ultrasonic sensors use a piezoelectric material to generate the ultrasonic waves.
1. INDUSTRIAL PROFILE 1.1 INTEGRAL COACH FACTORY The integral coach factory is a production unit of the Indian railways was set-up under the first five-year plan.ICF is started with the transfer of coach building technologies from m/s SWISS CARS AND ELEVATORS, Manufacturing Corporation, Switzerland. The prime minister of India inaugurated the production unit…
Everything in today’s digital devices world is becoming a touch away. Whether it is filling an early morning coffee mug or setting the timer for washing machine or turning ON the display of your PC.Capacitive Touch Technology is widely used in touch sensing devices. Less time response and environment adaptive features made it popular between the manufacturers. Some more applications are water purifiers, kitchen appliances, vending machines and switches.Most of us have surely come across capacitive touch sensor in our day to day life but how many of us thought about the working principle behind it.Change in capacitance is used to sense the touch in capacitive display. Amazed? How can a two metal plate component which stores charge can sense the touch? Answer to the above question will be explored in this Insight.
The generation of electric potential by the application of pressure, strain or any force is known as the piezoelectric effect. This effect can also be implemented to sense any audio signal. This can be achieved by using a piezoelectric diaphragm as audio sensor as shown in this project. Apart from the piezo sensor, other parts used in the circuit are as follows:1.Transistor BC5482. Resistances3. Speaker, and4. Capacitances
The generation of pressure variation or strain by the application of electric potential across a piezoelectric material is reverse of the piezoelectric [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]effect. The circuit based project mentioned here uses this principle to use a piezo diaphragm as an output device. This is the concept used in commonly used piezo buzzers. As buzzers, they are also used in horns, telephone keypads, calculators etc. Shown below is an image of external features of a piezo buzzer. Read more to find out how piezo buzzer can be constructed and how it can be put to work with easy steps.
The project on Seismic sensor circuit described here senses pressure variation or mechanical strain and responds by sounding a speaker. It can be used at [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]prohibited places to alert any unwanted entry. Such sensors can be placed on the floors of these places and whenever an intrusion would occur, the speaker would go off. The term “Seismic” is used majorly for all the operations and processes related to the earth, its crust and lower layers. The similar areas are there where this sensor finds its applications: 1. Decoding natural vibrations under the earth’s crust through seismograph 2. Aid in large industrial processes of oil extraction drilling process, mining, tunnel construction etc.
The project about light sensor circuit shows the application of photodiode to detect the presence of light. This light sensor can be used as an intermediate circuit [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]in various applications to detect the presence or absence of light. The sensitivity of the sensor can be adjusted using the preset. This circuit is based around a LM339 comparator along with variable capacitors, photodiode, LED and a solo resistor. A photodiode, used as a photo detector, generates current in the circuit when light incidents on it. The circuit of this project uses the photodiode in reverse bias mode with resistor R1. The LED at the output will glow when light falls on the diode. In such a condition, the inverting input drops to a lower value than the reference set at the non-inverting input and so the output goes providing the necessary forwards bias to the LED.
I’m just conveying my emotions about robots to you. So people what is robotics?? You might be getting confused about the question itself.. Funny.. But in actual Robotics it is a wide field. Robotics is term denoted with respect to robots. WHAT is a ROBOT??Roughly we can say, ROBOT is a machine with brain and memory. Some bookish language may be elaborating it like “A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”. This definition is pretty expressive.
The EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. In an EEPROM the data can be written with the help of electrically programming the chip. EEPROM memory is widely used in microcontroller systems where some particular data need to be retained each time the system is turned on and to save particular data before the system is powered off.The EEPROM memory chips can be interfaced in a microcontroller chip usually with the help of serial communication protocols. In case of small applications where only a few bytes needs to be stored the extra EEPROM chips are not preferred since it add extra complexity in the hardware, coding and increase the cost of the system. Hence most of the microcontrollers are provided with small sized built-in EEPROM chip which can be used to store data in small applications.
In current technology scenario, monitoring of gases produced is very important. From home appliances such as air conditioners to electric chimneys and safety systems at industries monitoring of gases is very crucial. Gas sensors are very important part of such systems. Small like a nose, gas sensors spontaneously react to the gas present, thus keeping the system updated about any alterations that occur in the concentration of molecules at gaseous state. Gas sensors are available in wide specifications depending on the sensitivity levels, type of gas to be sensed, physical dimensions and numerous other factors. This Insight covers a methane gas sensor that can sense gases such as ammonia which might get produced from methane. When a gas interacts with this sensor, it is first ionized into its constituents and is then adsorbed by the sensing element. This adsorption creates a potential difference on the element which is conveyed to the processor unit through output pins in form of current. What is this sensing element? Is it kept in some chamber or is kept exposed? How does it get current and how it is taken out? Let’s find out in this Insight!!!
This circuit is very sensitive to trigger and activate the audio visual alarm when wetness is sensed at its probes. This project is useful at homes to detect the water [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]supply in the situations when the timing of water supply is not fixed. This circuit uses the 555 timer along with some sensor element which can detect moisture.In this circuit based project, 555 timer works in astable mode. It is driven by the emitter current which is coming from BC548 transistor as this transistor has high gain. In astable mode IC 555 functions as an oscillator. So for 555 to work in full oscillator mode a high current is required so as to trigger it. As the probes sense the moisture on it, the transistor gets switched ON and small current starts flowing between the base and the emitter. When no moisture is detected i.e. in dry state it remains OFF.
The modern world is filled with gadgets that get excited when they sense human motion. Automatic doors in elevators and shopping malls, burglar alarms at houses and shops, automatic lighting systems, electronic amenities in washrooms are just a few examples where human presence or absence puts the device into active or passive state. Smart, right? Now, what if we tell you that behind this smart response to motion is a gizmo that does not even reach the 2cm mark in size. Known as Pyroelectric or Passive Infrared Sensor (PIR, in both cases), this small electronic device is the curious case for this Insight.How does PIR sensor selectively responds to human radiated IRs? Upto what range can this sensor work? What lies inside this sensor that makes it work? This and answers to more questions in this Insight on PIR sensors. What adds more charm to this Insight is that the Panasonic 10m sensor taken is also one of the smallest PIR sensors commercially available till date.
India is an agricultural country & farming is a basic occupation in our country. Since today farmers are watering the plants everyday but this is the project whichhelps the farmers & in farming field for watering without any problem because here there is watering system is made. In this system the thirsty plant gives message to the farmer that it needs water and then we can water the plants. Nowadays, people have nursery at their home and some people have hobby of gardening. So at these places also this watering system is very useful for people. Many plants need more water & some plants need less water depending on the level of moisture in the soil.People use this system in their daily life & this system is called botanical system.
When a communication is to be established, that too wirelessly, with a remote device, we typically employ optical radiations or radio waves or sometimes, acoustic waves (for underwater applications). These three types of wireless communications basically differ in their frequencies. All frequencies starting from frequency bands like LF, HF, VHF, UHF and so on, extending up to microwaves and millimeter waves are referred to as radio waves. Acoustic waves use ultrasonic portion of frequency spectrum. Optical Radiations use visible and infrared portion of the spectrum. Infrared sensors have been widely utilized for remote based applications such as in televisions etc. This article will detail with a Passive Infrared Sensor.
The Paris Air show is one of the biggest platforms for various airplane manufacturers to showcase the swiftness of their planes. Some of the valiant pilots of the world perform amazing stunts. These pilots are supported by the power of fast computing machinery in their airplanes. One of the critical parts of this computer assisted circuitry is the tilt sensor. A type of transducer, tilt sensor aids in giving information about the vertical as well as horizontal inclination of the airplane so that the pilot can understand how can he tackle the obstacles during the flight and perform the stunts
Sensors are very important organs of any measurement system. They collect data from the surroundings/ physical parameter and provide electrical signal as the input to the systems. Amongst wide variety of sensors operating on different sensing principles and used in different applications, position sensors play an important role in different systems. Whether it is fly-by-wire aircraft systems, drive-by-wire cars, bullet trains taking round curves, injection molding machines, packaging machines, medical equipments, and so on, position sensors finds their applications, of course in different ways.