This project and circuit finds a huge application in the area of robotics to control motor direction. This circuit uses the basic concept of transistors as a switch. H-bridge using transistorTransistor with proper biasing can be used as switch, i.e. it can be used to toggle between the two states of a switch on or off. This configuration of transistor has been used in H-bridge to drive a motor in both clockwise and anticlockwise direction. This circuit derives its name from the English alphabet “H”, which closely resembles the circuit pictorially. The circuit based project can be divided into two parts. The first part explains the concepts behind the working transistor as switch and the second part the function and operation of H Bridge. Keep on reading to find out how the circuit is constructed and what makes it work.
Here is very useful application that controls the number of rotation of 12 V DC gear motor with very low RPM (1,2,3,5 or 10 etc).You may find lots of [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]applications of this project in robotics, CNC machines, manufacturing industries etc. Here are some of the examples In any PCB cutting or PVC pipe cutting CNC machine (or any other automatic cutting machine) first the linear dimensions are calibrated in terms of number of rotations (e.g. 5 rotations = 1 CM), then by adjusting the number of rotations as per required dimension one can easily move the cutting tool to that distance (e.g. for 1 meter 500 rotations). In robotic arm application, if the arm has to move to a specific position then first its movement can be calibrated in terms of number of rotations of motor. Afterwards once we program and set the number of rotations for a button, the arm will always move to that position when that button is pressed.
This project is Microsoft Windows based program written in Visual C++ to control DC motor. Visual C++ is one of the very efficient, effective more user [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]friendly software. Let us see the main function as well as the additional features of this application. Mouse as well as keyboard interface provided. All the controlling actions at your fingertips Four degree of motion control is achieved for single motor. (1) Motor rotates continuously at constant speed (2) pulse wise rotation means motor rotates for less than one revolution (3) motor rotates with desired speed for fix duration of time (4) motor rotates till mouse button is pressed and moved. One can vary both the parameters of motor speed and direction. DC motor will rotate like stepper motor in pulse wise rotation mode. Keep on reading to find out how simple controls over DC motor can be managed using Visual C++.
Electric motors are the most convenient devices in use which can convert the electrical energy into mechanical energy. Electrical motors converts the electrical [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]energy to rotational motion which can then be easily converted to any kind of mechanical motion like moving a robotic arm, moving a needle in a sewing machine etc. The Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) motors are especially useful since they are very easy to control, produce a lot of power and come in various sizes, shapes and voltage ratings. When used with electrical or electronic circuits one must be careful about certain things like the current consuming, torque, RPM etc. This article mainly discusses those things and also the details of circuits which can be used to drive the PMDC motors. Continue reading to find out how PMDC motor can be easily used in electronic circuits.
Shown here is an easy to construct electronic circuit through which a motor can be made to run in both directions i.e. clockwise and anticlockwise. An interesting [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]fact that adds to the curiosity of the circuit is that this is done by pressing a single switch. This project finds a good application in areas of robotics. The commonly used H-Bridge circuit uses two control signals to control both the directions of the motor. Before we begin explaining the circuitry, let’s have some information about the H-Bridge circuit.H Bridge CircuitMainly used to control DC motors and stepper motors, H-bridge divides the voltage on the either side of the load. In this circuit, two IC555 timers form the H-bridge circuit around the motor. These 555 timers work in astable mode. Let’s find out more about how the circuit works.
Servo is a special type of motor which converts electric signals in to shaft positions. Servos can be broadly classified as Industrial servos and Hobby grade [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]servos.Industrial servos are generally heavy duty high power AC or DC servos widely used for precise robotic arms.Hobby grade servos are widely used in RC Hobbies like RC Plane, Cars Helicopters, Multirotors, Boats, hover craft, etc.They are mostly used to control the control surfaces (RC Planes) or for thrust vectoring mechanisms (hovercraft, boats, multirotors) or for steering mechanisms (RC Cars).Hobby grade servos are further classified as micro, standard, giant based on the torque they can provide, however their working principal is just the same.Based on speed of operation they are classified as Analog or Digital servos, Digital servos provide greater speed but consume more power.Speed of a servo motor is defined as time taken for shaft to move from 00 to 600 after the application of signal. In this article we will be using an ARDUINO clone board viz. FREEDUINO.
This system is the example of close loop control system for maintains the speed of stepper motor constant. The speed of stepper motor is sensed and feedback to controller. Controller will compare it with set value and if there is deviation then it will either increase or decrease the speed.In most of the industries the constant speed of motor is required and that should not be fall / exceed beyond specified limit. to get the precise RPM and control stepper motor is the best.The stepper motor is placed on top of laser as shown. The slotted wheel is coupled with the shaft of motor. The wheel is such a big that it can interrupt the laser beam falling on LDR. Now as the motor rotates the slotted wheel also rotates. The beam will fall on LDR only when the slot comes. This will produce one pulse. So every time when slot come in line with LDR and laser, one pulse is produced. Thus the rotation of motor is converted in to pulse that can be counted.
This is also picked and place type robotic application. But this has a unique feature that it is controlled from cell phone. It’s all the movements are controlled from any cell phone. That means you can control this robot from anywhere in the world where GSM / CDMA network service is available. Isn’t it very interesting??!!!!????…..The robot has built in GSM / CDMA cell phone that receives signals from other cell phone. One has to call the number of the cell phone (that is inside robot) from his cell phone to activate it. Then by pressing different keys from 0 – 9 form the phone he can control the movements of the robot. It is 4-axis robotic arm. It’s all four motions are controlled by 2 DC gear motors and 2 servo motors.Let us start with mechanical structure of robot.
How to deal with any unknown stepper motor? This section deals with a special procedure that can be useful to find out the type of stepper motor, its terminals, its coil sequence, its step resolution and everything about stepper motor. if anyone have a steppe motor that doesn’t have any specifications then after going through this section…
Here is a very simple example of AC motor speed control given by changing firing angle of TRIAC with the help of micro controller 89C2051. Varying speed of AC motor by means of changing firing angle of any thyristor is very widely used method. One very nice example is fan regulator in which a fan…
In most of the industries for motion control AC motor or DC motor are used. To control the motion there is a need of either AC drive or DC drive. The basic functions of this drive are to give smooth start to motor change the direction, change the speed etc. Here I am demonstrating one such…
Here given project is the real control panel for any unipolar stepper motor which is designed to run motor at lower RPM (as much as upto 10 RPM) to take greater load and provide extra heavy torque. This project is for specialize stepper motor which has technical specifications like Voltage ratings: – from 5 to…
AC Drive is widely used and probably a vital controlling device in the field of industrial automation. Most of manufacturing industries, continuous production units, chemical industries, textiles miles, pharmaceutical industries are now equipped with most advance industrial automation and to control various AC motors the ultimate solution is AC Drive. What’s an AC Drive? AC Drive is actually…
The name itself suggests that the project is on industrial automation and the application is developed to control any industrial DC motor. Lets first check the specifications Motor type: – DC series motor Maximum Rated Voltage:- 100 VDC Maximum rated current: – 4 Amp Power ratings: – 2 HP Maximum RPM: – 3000 Torque: – 5 to…
Obviously you might have seen so many temperature controller and indicator applications using different micro-controllers, micro-processors or other controlling devices. But this is the actual application of temperature controller that controls speed of DC fan as temperature varies. It is not a simple ON-OFF type controller that switches fan ON / OFF when temperature increases / decreases certain limit. But its continuous type controller that continuously varies speed of DC fan as temperature increases / decreases. That is a demo of actual industrial application.
In most of the industrial processes it is required to rotate DC (or AC) motor forward and reverse for desired time. First motor rotates forward (clockwise) for some time (say 2 – 3 min) then it stops for some time. Again it rotates reverse (anticlockwise) for some time and rests. This process repeats every time when gets triggeredSequential timer is widely used circuit in industries because in most of the industries all the processes are of chain reaction type. That means one process ends and it triggers next. The last process triggers first process when it ends. And thus the cycle continues. These sequence timers are micro controller based multi-functional and programmable.But here we have a sequential timer using simple IC555. So let us see how it is done
This is a very interesting application. We shall vary the speed of DC motor from a remote place without any wire connection. I am using PWM (pulse width modulation) method to very the speed of DC Motor. To make it wireless I am using IR transmitter and IR sensor. There are two sections in the circuit 1) PWM generator with IR modulator and 2) IR receiver and motor driver. Transmitter generates PWM wave of 50 Hz (20 ms) and modulates it over 38 KHz frequency. The IR sensor on receiver side will demodulate the PWM wave and drives the DC motor.
An interesting project explaining how can one control speed of a stepper motor from a remote place without using any wires. A LASER and LDR are used for this purpose. From the transmitter, low frequency pulses are sent to the receiver using LASER diode. On the receiver side, a LDR will receive these pulses which will further trigger mono stable multi-vibrator to regenerate same pulses. These pulses will drive the stepper motor through driver circuit. So as anyone changes pulse frequency from transmitter, the stepper motor speed will change accordingly. The project uses a pulse generator, LASER, LDR, monostable multi-vibrator, current drive, stepper motor, counter and OR gates.
Line follower is an autonomous robot which follows either black line in white are or white line in black area. Robot must be able to detect particular line and keep following it. For special situations such as cross overs where robot can have more than one path which can be followed, predefined path must be followed by the robot. In the following section, we will discuss the line follower robot which follows black line in white area and take right turn whenever cross overs or Y shaped turn arrives.However with some minor suitable changes, users can make robot for other possibilities also.
We currently live in the era of speed and sophistication. Everything that man once developed and found to be too time consuming and cumbersome has been modified, altered and compacted to make its use more simple. To cope up with this speed, every routine work has been automated. This pursuit of professional excellence has forced people to spend less time on themselves. For example, shaving is almost a daily chore for men to ensure personal hygene and needs to be done fast. But doing so with manual razors is a time consuming job and if done to hastily, can lead to cuts and burns.But thankfully, the technology of this age offers replacement to old age instruments like manual razors and frequent visits to a barber shop by time effective handheld devices like hair clippers and beard trimmers. Unlike manual razors and scissors, trimmers are devices that cut, but don’t bite and that too in very less time.