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Organisation of Memory in Linux (Part 8/15)

Written By: 

Ashish Vara

This tutorial is to explain about the organization of memory in Linux.  Each and every application need some kind of memory for storing its data. In Linux applications access the memory space in a distinct manner. The memory-management unit (MMU) is the hardware responsible for implementing virtual memory. 

Memory is the most important part of a system.The concept of virtual memory is one of the very powerful aspects of memory management. Since the initial era of computers the need of memory more than the existing physical memory has been felt. Over the years, many solutions were used to overcome this issue and the most successful of them has been the concept of virtual memory.

The Fundamental Of IOT Security

Written By: 

Vikas Gulia

IoT, stands for Internet of things, term was first sprouted in the mind of Kevin Ashton at Auto-ID center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1999. IoT is trending at very high pace in the scientist and researcher society. IoT alone holds a market potential of upto $14 trillion. By this fact we can assume what IoT hold inside for humanity. 

The IoT infrastructure consist of mainly 4 basic module: WSN or sensor Hub, wireless connectivity solution, cloud computing and storage solution and finally the user device Network. All these nodes can be PC or laptop, mobile device like phone or tablet or any other PDA or embedded computing device.

Close Loop Control System Demonstration - Dish Antenna


Ashutosh Bhatt

Actually, there are two types of control systems (1) open loop control system and (2) close loop control system. In the close loop control system the actual output is sensed and given as feedback along with input to the system. Instead, in open loop system the input is given to system that generates output but the output is not sensed or fed back to input. 

In the close loop system the input is not given directly to the system. But it is given to comparator. The comparator compares the input with output feedback signal and generates error signal. This error signal is given as input to system.

DIY Home Plant Watering System

Submitted By: 

Shreepanjali Mod

Home Plant Watering SystemThis project is a combination of multiple projects that wuere suggested with respect to home based plant watering system.

To build one such project you will need Arduino NanoR3 (1), Adafruit Standard LCD - 16x2 White on Blue, a mini water pump, a rotary encoder with push button, L298n IC, photo resistor, a general purpose transistor NPN, a resistor with 10k Ohms, single turn potentiometer-10K ohms, a capacitor 10µF, a capacitor of 1000µF, 470µF, and 100nF, a 1N4001 diode, soil moisture sensor, screw terminal block, RCA socket, AMS1117-ADJ, a resistor 680 ohm, a resistor of 2k Ohm, and power supply DC 9v 3A and a generic soldering iron.

Interactive Guitar T-shirts

Submitted By: 

Shalini Verma

ThinkGeek have come out with a fully playable guitar which is built into a t-shirt. Do not treat this musical guitar as a toy that plays pre-canned musical riffs because it is a real musical instrument that allows you to play your favorite songs and sound great doing it. Also known as the Electronic Rock Guitar Shirt, this thing can create a rock magic environment, if you know how to play it.

It is occupied with a mini amp where the volume can cranked to 11 and you can start your party wherever you want. 

How to install and run Arduino in Linux (Part 4/15)

Written By: 

Ashish Vara

Run Arduino in LinuxThis tutorial explains how to install and run Arduino in Linux distribution such as an Ubuntu. Arduino is already available in the software center of Ubuntu which is one of the repositories of Linux.

Arduino software is made in java environment  and to run the java program, we need to download and install Java run time environment. There is no need of installing java run time if it is already installed in your system.. Since Arduino software already includes java you can install  it individually from Ubuntu software center using the following command line from command terminal: 

Ubuntu needs to meet the required dependencies of Arduino. so before installibng Arduino make sure that the dependencies are met.

DIY : Short Range Optical Pulse Transmitter and Receiver



This project demonstrates how pulses can be transmitted from one place to another place wirelessly using light as medium. One LED is connected at the transmitter side that blinks at frequency of applied pulses. At the receiver side, Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is used to receive light pulses. IC555 is used at both ends. At transmitter side it is used to generate continuous pulses with variable frequency output from 1 Hz to 10 Hz.  At receiver side it is used to generate same pulses as per the trigger input applied by LDR.   

Note – for visual effect (demonstration) the pulse frequency is kept low. The frequency can be kept high in terms of KHz also.