Generally we know about interfacing button switches, LED with Atmega32 microcontroller. We know that interface switch’s to one port, LED’s to another port and if we press any switch the corresponding LED will glow. But all the LED’s operate with single switch we don’t know. Here we are developing the program for operating 7 LED’s with one switch. The circuit connections and programming is so simple. We will discuss here about that. First we see the circuit connections. Let us take any one port of Atemga32 controller is PortD. Connect 7 LED’s to PortD and connect on switch to remaining pin of the PortD. Now let us start the coding for microcontroller. First open the Atmel Studio software of any version. Create a new project with your desired file name. Here I am taking the project name as “button switch”.
The circuit is used for decoration purpose or as an indicator. Flashing or dancing speed of LED’s can be varied with the help of variable resistor and various dancing pattern of light can be formed by slight change in the circuit. In this circuit 6 LED’s moves in one direction then again flow the opposite direction than previous. The circuit is based on two IC’s namely NE555 and CD4017 with few more components. 555 timer IC wired as an astable oscillator. In this circuit NE555 astable generates a clock for the circuit which provide a oscillating wave to the output pin 3 of IC1. You can vary the speed of oscillation with the help of VR1. The frequency of oscillation of 555 timer can be calculated by f=1.44/(R1+2*(VR1)*C1) and CD4017 is a CMOS counter/ divider IC. It take clock signal from the clock input and turn on the 10 output in sequence, each time when it receives clock input pulses. It is the most popular IC and extremely useful in various project like Light Chaser, Matrix Die. In order to understand the working of IC one must know about its individual pin.
Everyone has studied this rule in their childhood. It stands for “bracket, “off”, “division”, “multiplication”, “addition”, “subtraction”. A mathematical operation involve a number of operators but they must carry out in a particular order. The circuit described here will help you to practically implement the BODMAS rule which we have studied.The circuit is made with the help of three IC’s namely 7404, 7408 and 4073. 7404 is a hex inverter or NOT gate IC. It is a 14 pin IC and contain 6 individual NOT gate on a single IC. 7408 is a quad 2 input AND gate IC. It contains 4 individual AND gate on a single IC. 4073 is a triple 3 input AND gate. It contains 3 individual AND gate on a single IC. LED, switches and resistors are also used in this circuit.
The circuit is based on two IC’s namely NE555 and CD4017 with few more components. where 555 timer IC is wired as an astable oscillator. CD4017 is a CMOScounter/ divider IC which takes clock signal from the clock input and turns on the10 output in sequence, each time when it receives clock input pulses. It is the most popular IC and is extremely useful in various project like Light Chaser, Matrix Die.The circuit is based on two IC’s namely NE555 and CD4017 with few more components. where 555 timer IC is wired as an astable oscillator. CD4017 is a CMOS counter/ divider IC which takes clock signal from the clock input and turns on the10 output in sequence, each time when it receives clock input pulses. It is the most popular IC and is extremely useful in various project like Light Chaser, Matrix Die.
NE555 astable generates a clock for the circuit, which provides an oscillating wave to the output pin 3 of IC1. You can vary the speed of oscillation with the help of VR1. The frequency of oscillation of 555 timer can be calculated by: f=1.44/(R1+2*(VR1)*C1) Now this wave is supplied to CD4017 decade counter pin 14…
Step 1: Understanding the component Fig. 1: Image of an LED Light emitting diode (LED)is a small component used in almost every electronic device. Led has 2 terminals or legs. The bigger leg is the anode or positive terminal and shorter leg is cathode or negative terminal. But this method of identifying the leads will not…
Described here is a CD 4027 hearted, battery employed circuit that serves as a solution for light and fan during the times of extreme humidity or power cuts. The circuit consists of a LED light and small DC fan which can sufficiently work for one person. The main advantage of this circuit is one can use any one or both devices at a particular time. The circuit does not consume much power so one can expect it work for a good amount of time. This circuit is based on CD4027 IC which is the most commonly used JK flip flop IC. CD4027 is the master slave JK flip flop IC which works in toggle mode. Here, this IC can be used to change the state by signal applied to one or more control inputs and will have one or two outputs. In this circuit, output is only depended upon the current input.
A simple LED torch would light up 3 white LED from 6 volts supply in case of emergency or in darkness. It is quite light-weight and handy, thus, can be used [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]while traveling in train or in bus. Here we have used CD4049 IC which is a hex inverting buffer CMOS chipCD4049 contains six inverter gates in one package as shown in diagram. In this, pin 3 is input and 2 is for output. For first gate similarly pin 5 is input and pin 4 is output for second gate similarly we have four more gates. Pin1 1 is for supply voltage and pin 8 is connected to ground. Pin 13 and 16 are unused. The circuit is based on NOT gate CD4049 IC and utilizing 3 gates of NOT gate IC.
The LED starts glowing as intensity of sound varies. This project can be used to measure the intensity of sound present in the room as sound intensity increase [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]number of LED glows also increases. Circuit is based on LM324 which is 14 pin IC consisting of 4 independent operational amplifiers. The output voltage of LM324 is many times higher than the voltage difference between the input terminals of an op amp.LM324 IC is used as a comparator and when input voltage rises above the reference voltage, output is attained. When no noise or audio signals are present in the room, output voltage on pin 1 is zero as voltage on pin 2 is lower than that at pin 3. Since, the IC works as comparator, less voltage on pin 2 in comparison to pin 3 will not make the LED glow. Let’s find out the working of this interesting project.
The dazzling Water Cube swimming arena at last summer’s Beijing Olympics was lit up by around half a million LEDs. Famous Bridges, buildings and hotels are opting LEDs for their exquisite night lighting and general illumination too. Why there is this sudden rage for the tiny LED? A little light emitter, a well renowned indicator that faithfully served in the display units of calculators, digital watches, and mobile phones for years is now geared up to take away the headache of efficient as well as Eco-friendly lighting.Yes, the tiny LED is all set to light our lives. It has taken a giant leap, from being a humble indicator to on the way to monopolize the lighting market. Years of research has brought LEDs to this advanced stage.
LED bulbs are the future of lighting. Be it automobiles, industries, household or any hobbyist requirement, LEDs form the best solutions in terms of long-term cost savings and power efficiency. Not only are these devices more efficient than traditional lighting devices, they are built to outlast any of their lighting predecessor. The internals of a typical LED bulb will be explored here.Externally, a LED bulb might look similar to a conventional incandescent lamp, but the two are quite different. The chassis of the bulb is made of ceramic and houses the electronic ballast. Ceramic is used for its insulating and heat dissipative properties.
The operation of the LED flasher circuit project is based on 555 timers with few other components. It flashes the LED ON and OFF after regular intervals of [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]time. It can be used as eye of a toy to find the toys in the dark, in events like wedding ceremonies, birthday parties or any other events to grab the attention. The LED Flasher circuit project here is based on 555 timers. The timer is wired in astable mode which means that its output is a square wave oscillator. The two LEDS are connected in such a way that when one is ON other is OFF and vice versa. Keep on reading to find out how the circuit is constructed and how it works.
This circuit uses Bi-color LED which creates an eye-catching running display effect. This project can be used in the places like borders of animation, pictures, [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]short word display etc. The bi-color LEDs are similar to uni-color with the difference that there are two LEDs housed in a package. Bi-colour LEDs may have two or three leads depending upon the internal connections. In this circuit five Bi-color LEDs are used. The LEDs first light in green color, from top to bottom and then in red color, from bottom to top. The IC1 provide clock pulses to the input of decade counter IC2. At each clock pulse, IC2 counts from 0 to 9. The first five pulses lights up in green color when they reach the green anodes of the bi-color LED. Similarly, next five pulses lights up in red color when they reach the red color anodes.
A computer monitor, technically termed as visual display unit is an output device that presents the information from the CPU on the screen working as an interface between CPU and the user. A cable connects the monitor to a video adaptor or video card which is set up on the motherboard of the computer. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) sends instruction to the video adaptor telling what needs to be displayed on the screen. The video adaptor converts the instructions into a set of corresponding signals and sends to the monitor. Monitor contains a circuitry that generates the picture on the screen from the set of signals. The major parameters that measure the performance of a monitor are luminance, contrast ratio, resolution, dot pitch, response time, refresh rate and power consumption. The common problem that arises in monitors is dead pixels, blurred screen, phosphor-burn, etc.
LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and LED (Light Emitting Diode) Displays are two major display technologies being widely used today. LED Displays are technological advancement of LCD displays. LED displays are the LCD displays with an LED backlight to power up the LCD panel. It means that LEDs are placed behind or around the LCD panel…
LED (Light Emitting Diode) is a special diode that emits light when an electric voltage is applied to it. It is common electronic component that is being used in devices like TV, computer, etc. generally for indicating purpose. They are available in various colors like red, yellow, green etc. There are two leads of an LED that are used to supply input voltage. The longer lead is positive and known as ‘Post’, and the smaller is negative known as ‘Anvil’ as shown in the image above. A metal cup is placed on the negative lead (Anvil) which holds a semiconductor die. The semiconductor die is a combination of two semiconductor materials – N type and P type and an active region (known as P-N junction) between them.
Soldering iron is quite popular hand tool commonly used to solder components with each other. It works on a very basic principle. When we pass current through a high resistant material, heat is generated. We use this heat to melt down a conductor metal also called soldering wire and putting it between two components in order to connect them electrically.A general soldering iron consists of a heating region and an insulated handle. On supplying electrical current to the soldering iron, the heating tip gets heated and with the help of a soldering wire it joins two components.
In 1910 Frank W. Wood made a board which can display number and after several modifications today it’s called7-segment display. 7 segment display is a 10 [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]pin electronic component with eight led’s embedded inside it to displays number from 0 to 9.It is available in two configurations: common cathode and common anode. All the 8 LED terminals have their one end internally shorted and linked with the middle pins such that it serves as a common terminal (cathode or anode). Middle pin of both sides are shorted with each other which serves as a common terminal. 7 led are used to form the digits while the 8thone is for the dot which helps in identifying the correct orientation. Read more to find out how internal features of 7-segment display and know how it works.
Moving LED Display is very active application of digital electronics. The application of this device can be found everywhere. From name plate display to train number display this display is used. The power consumption is 70% less than primitive display. The main advantage of using this display is the information displaying on the display can easily be change by changing the program in microcontroller. And also animation is possible during displaying the massage. This is undoubtedly acceptable in the high society. There is another advantage of this device i.e. less cost-effective. The LED used in this device is RED LED having wavelength 660nm. Hence the displaying massage can be seen from very high distance.
For understanding the human needs a system must be able to take input from user. The devices which can be used to take input for a system are keypad, touch [[wysiwyg_imageupload::]]screen, etc. In the article LED blinking, the microcontroller drives the LED or in embedded language the microcontroller was set to give o/p, this article gives brief information of getting an input from user at a particular pin of microcontroller. In order to take input from an external source on any of the pins of the AVR microcontroller, the pins need to be configured as input pin. This configuration informs the controller that the corresponding pins are used to take input. Read more to find out how the circuit is constructed and how the IC can be programmed to work in the desired manner.