HC-SR04 based Distance Finder gives the distance from an obstacle in centimetres. It has a range of 2cms to 400cms. The project is build around AT89S52 which 8051 based microcontroller. The distance is displayed on Seven Segment Displays.The working of the ultrasonic sensors is quite simple and they are easy to interface with the microcontroller. The sensor module has 4-pins out of which Pin-1 and Pin-4 are +Vcc and Gnd respectively.Pin-2 is Trigger and Pin-3 is Echo pin.When a High pulse of 10us is applied at TRIG pin, the ultrasonic transmitter sends 8 consecutive pulses of 40kHz frequency. As the Eighth pulse is sent the ECHO pin of the sensor becomes HIGH. Now when the ultrasonic waves reflect from any surface and are received by the Receiver, the ECHO pin becomes LOW.
These days’ traffic congestion is the biggest problem of densely populated cities. The project focuses mainly on three areas – priority mechanism for emergency vehicles like Ambulances, Fire Engines to control the traffic density for their smooth passage and monitoring the traffic junction. This project is a replica of a four way lane crossing in real time scenario. The project proposes primarily the problems faced by emergency vehicles. RFID concept is used to make green for the Ambulances lane and thus providing a stoppage free way for the Ambulance.The secondary, importance is given to controlling the traffic density by placing IR sensors used to measure the density of vehicles which are fixed at a fixed distance. If the traffic density is high on particular side, more priority is given for the side where the vehicular traffic is more and green signal is given to this side of the traffic. By using this system traffic can be cleared without irregularities and time delays. A Wireless camera is used to monitor the vehicular traffic time and also monitor the problems which might occur at the junction. A specific allocation of time is given way for smooth passage for pedestrians.
If we look around, we will find ourselves to be surrounded by computing systems. Every year millions of computing systems are built destined for desktop computers (Personal Computers, workstations, mainframes and servers) but surprisingly, billions of computing systems are built every year embedded within larger electronic devices and still goes unnoticed. Any device running on electric power either already has computing system or will soon have computing system embedded in it.
The GPS receiver is used to get accurate geographical location by receiving information from satellites. It receives information from satellites and gives location information in terms of latitude and longitude. It gives latitude and longitudes with accuracy of degree-minute-second. Using this latitude and longitude co-ordinates one can easily trace out the location on entire globe. The GPS receivers have enormous applications.The GPS receiver gives output serially in form of strings with NMEA 0183 protocol. These strings are received serially by host computer or host processor/controller for display or to take any decision or action. The following figure shows the output of GPS receiver on hyper terminal of desktop computer.
The project aims at controlling a wheelchair by means of human voice. It enables a disabled person to move around independently, using a voice recognition application which is interfaced with motors.The prototype of the wheelchair is built using a micro-controller, chosen for its low cost, in addition to its versatility and performance in mathematical operations and communication with other electronic devices. The system has been designed and implemented in a cost effective way so that if our project is commercialized the needy users in developing countries will benefit from it.
Most engineers start their journey in embedded systems with microcontrollers. With microcontrollers, one gets a complete miniature computing system on a single integrated circuit. The CPU, RAM, ROM and Input / Output peripherals all on a single thumb size SoC. This very popular approach to learning embedded design and development is in fact just the one side of the complete picture. Working with microcontrollers (and microprocessors) is all about software-based embedded design.
This project is about interfacing RF (Radio Frequency) module with the 8051 microcontroller. These RF 1modules help us in sending and receiving the data wirelessly up to certain distance. This provides us the ease of wireless data transferring. There are many forms of wireless technologies which can transfer the data such as Bluetooth modules, ZigBee modules, and Wi-Fi modules.RF is one of them. It’s a lot cheaper and works quite well for small scale projects. These modules are really easy to deal with. They jus1t require the data to be transferred serially and VCC+GND supply of course.
Want to know why your monthly Electricity bills are “so high”? Take a closer look at the Lights or Fans, when a person inside the room leaves the room hastily, He or She unknowingly leaves the Lights switched on.So, what next? The only way for this is Intelligent Automated Home Lighting System. In this system when a person enters the room the tube lights are switched on automatically. The light switches go off automatically when there is no body inside the room. The whole Intelligent Automated Home Lighting System is now at the tip of your motion. As one moves inside the room the bulb switches on and as one leaves the room it switches off.
Some of you may be familiar with the terms FPGA or Field Programmable Gate Array. And familiarity does not necessarily beget understanding. So what exactly is FPGA?In simple terms it is a logic chip which contains a two dimensional array of logic cells and programmable switches. They are ICs that contain an array of identical logic blocks with programmable interconnections.Just as on a blank canvas you can paint any picture you want, FPGA allows an engineer to design any digital circuit. They say: just generate the bit file, download it and you’re good to go! This is a big development over the traditional microcontrollers as the architecture of such controllers does not support larger designs. For example, microcontrollers like 8051 used Harvard architecture with CISC instruction set. FPGA does not have any inbuilt instruction sets which provide the designer with much greater flexibility. A controller has its own CPU which starts the controller, retains memory and performs several tasks. Unlike microcontrollers, a FPGA will not be able to start functioning on itsown due to lack of the traditional architecture.
This project named “RFID BASED ATTENDANCE SYSTEM” is based on RFID as the name suggests. In this project our aim is to make a note of every employee entering the room and also to calculate the amount of time person resides in room. Before company used to enter the data in register and it was bit clumsy. Company then thought of going for barcode but barcode was not that much durable? Barcode requires continuous line of sight, low data capacity, cannot be rewritten etc. due to this problems barcode cannot be used. So RFID is the solution of all problems. It is quite easy to work with. Tags con be reconfigured if read/write tags are used. Range can be improved by using high frequency reader. It can also add to security. By programming many other facilities can be added.
Now a day’s everyone needs a device which could control appliances wirelessly. This makes us to operate them on our fingertips from particular vicinity with ease.This time I have done something like this, I have created a prototype of a device which controls 4 devices/appliances separately using RF (Radio Frequency) technology. The device comprises of two sections: Transmitting (remote) and Receiving part. The transmitting part works as a remote device to send the corresponding data to the receiver section. It further consists of 4 SPDT (single pole double throw) switch, one Encoder IC (HT12E) and a TX module (433 MHz). These 4 switches are connected to the 4 data pins of the encoder IC to generate a 4-bit data to be transmitted. The switches provide either high (+5V) or low (0V) signal levels.
This is a 2 player game, based on 8051 microcontroller AT89S52. This game features two push buttons (one for each player) and an array of 8 LEDs for each. It demands high reflexes, as you have to push button as fast as you can. Each press would help the successive LED to glow until all the 8 LEDs are on. The competition is about how fast you can toggle (Press and then un-press) the buttons, greater your speed of pressing push button, greater will be your chance of winning. As soon as any of the two players reach the last LED, the push button of another player will get deactivated, which means it will not respond to the push. Also the LEDs of the winner will start toggling. This will ensure the accurate after results. To restart the game, press the reset button (button connected to pin 9 on microcontroller).
Real time clock is a digital clock which display real time on 16×2 LCD display. Here in this circuit we can also set alarm and time. The DS1307 serial real-time clock (RTC) is a low-power, full binary-coded decimal (BCD) clock/calendar plus 56 bytes of NV SRAM. Address and data are transferred serially through an I²C, bidirectional bus.The clock/calendar provides seconds, minutes, hours, day, date, month, and year information. The end of the month date is automatically adjusted for months with fewer than 31 days, including corrections for leap year. The clock operates in either the 24-hour or 12-hour format with AM/PM indicator.
In the normal switch board we have to push switch manually and oftenly stand up and operate switch manually so that it is wasted of time, It is also used to operate for handicap person, using a voice recognition application which is interfaced with electric device. The prototype of the Switchboard is built using a micro-controller, chosen for its low cost, in addition to its versatility and performance in mathematical operations and communication with other electronic devices. The system has been designed and implemented in a cost effective way so that if our project is commercialized the needy users in developing countries will benefit from it
What is a Timer A timer is a clock that controls the sequence of an event while counting in fixed intervals of time. It is used for producing precise time delay. Secondly, it can be used to repeat or initiate an action after/at a known period of time. This feature is very commonly used in…
Interrupt is one of the most important and powerful concepts and features in microcontroller/processor applications. Almost all the real world and real time systems built around microcontrollers and microprocessors make use of interrupts. What is Interrupt The interrupts refer to a notification, communicated to the controller, by a hardware device or software, on…
In most of the manufacturing industries, it is required to rotate DC/AC motor forward and reverse alternatively for desired time. First motor rotates forward (clockwise) for some time (say few minutes or even seconds). Then it stops for some time. Again it rotates reverse (anticlockwise) for some time and stops. This process continues. For example, in automated bottle filling plant, the bottles are moving on conveyor belt. When it comes under filler, the filler comes down (that means motor attached with mechanism rotates forward) then it fills the bottle (that means motor stops) again it goes up (motor rotates reverse) and stops until next bottle arrives. For moving filler up and down the time of rotating motor forward and reverse is calibrated and fixed. Also the motor stop time is calibrated based on time required to fill the bottle and the next bottle arrives.
Industrial safety is one of the main aspects of industry specially mining industry. In the mining industry safety is a very vital factor. To avoid loss of material and damaging of human health, protection system as well as faithful communication system is necessary inside the underground mines. To increase both safety and productivity in mines, a reliable communication must be established between workers, moving in the mine, and a fixed base station. Inside mines, the wired communication system is not so effective, because of wires can be damaged inside mines. In this project we are going to monitor the Mine parameters like abnormal gas, temperature and fire sensors to avoid the harmful gas or high temperature attacking the Mine workers. In this project to avoid loss of material and damaging of human health in mine workers because of using text to voice converter .The text to voice converter gives continues information inside the mine workers and also cameras are used to video monitoring.
The robot is operated through PC using wireless technology using zigbee and using wireless camera we can view both audio and video on the TV. This robot has a high power LED which acts as a light source when light intensity inside the pipe is low .It is a low cost robot used to monitor the changes of different parameters in the industrial pipes. By connecting temperature sensor to the robot we can get the temperature of dangerous zones in PC itself. By connecting smoke sensor to the robot we can get the information related concentration of smoke or gases in respective fields.
An LED dot matrix display consists of a matrix of LED’s arranged in a rectangular configuration. The desired character or graphics can be displayed by switching ON /OFF a desired configuration of LED’s. Common display configurations available are 7×5, 8×8, 7×15, etc. LED dot matrix can be used in simple display applications where the resolution is not a big concern. The figure below shows the arrangement of LEDs in a typical 7×5 dot matrix display.Any individual LED or a group of LEDs in the matrix can be activated by switching the required number of rows and columns.